About the publication
Who Are We Now

Blaise Agüera y Arcas

From leading AI researcher Blaise Agüera y Arcas comes an exploration of how biology, ecology, sexuality, history, and culture have intertwined to create a dynamic “us” that can neither be called natural nor artificial.

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Identity politics occupies the frontline in today’s culture wars, pitting generations against each other, and progressive cities against the rural traditions of our past. Rich in data and detail, Who Are We Now? goes beyond today’s headlines to connect our current reality to a larger more-than-human story.

At the heart of the book is a set of surveys conducted between 2016 and 2021, asking thousands of anonymous respondents all over the United States questions about their behavior and identity, and especially about gender and sexuality. The resulting window into people’s lives is a bit like that of the Kinsey Reports, which scandalized postwar America more than 70 years ago. Today, the landscape is—in every sense—even queerer. Twentieth century heterosexual “normalcy” is on the wane, particularly among young and urban people.

The landscape outside has changed too. After millennia of being fruitful and multiplying, we’ve strained, and exceeded, planetary limits. Domesticated animals far outweigh wildlife, and many species are in catastrophic decline. Yet curiously, our own population is poised to begin collapsing this century too, our fertility now curbed by choice rather than by premature death. Is this the end of humanity—or the beginning?

“A fascinating, provocative account of the contradictions and complications of identity and community in the technological age.” Sonia Katyal, Distinguished Law Professor and Co-director, Center for Law and Technology, UC Berkeley School of Law

“This is that rare book that not only explores a fascinating topic, but that teaches you how to think more deeply about any topic. Insightful and original.” Tim O’Reilly, Author, publisher, and founder of O’Reilly Media

About the author

Blaise Agüera y Arcas is a frequent speaker at TED and many other conferences, winner of MIT’s TR35 Prize and Fast Company’s Most Creative People award, and a Vice President and Fellow at Google Research. He leads a 500-person team working on Artificial Intelligence (AI), large language models, smart devices, technology ethics, and privacy. Publicly visible projects from his team include Federated Learning, Artists and Machine Intelligence, Coral, and many AI features in Pixel and Android. In 2016, he wrote a widely read essay on the relationship between art and technology, and in 2017 he co-authored another popular essay on physiognomy and bias in AI and a refutation of claims that facial structure reveals sexual orientation. Some of this material has been incorporated into the book’s third and fourteenth chapters. His early involvement in large language models and generative AI prompted op-eds in the Economist and essays in Noēma, as well as inspiring the novella Ubi Sunt, also published by Hat & Beard Press.

Connect with Blaise

For press inquiries, please contact Noah Bethke ([email protected])

Image Credits

Cover Front: Fig. 2. in Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, And Selection in Relation to Sex, 17, 1874, https://w.wiki/6sVK; 24: Anonymous, Culture Areas in North America, 1913, Popular Science Monthly Volume 82, https://w.wiki/6k$N; Jetsons, Everett Collection, Inc; Bisexual Resource Center, “Bidentification Card,” 2014, https://images.app.goo.gl/vw7oVKuTX99uSTYf6; Doggerelblogger, “RH-LH sidebents,” March 3, 2022, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://w.wiki/6k$R; Fondo Antiguo de la Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla, “Instruments antropométriques…” https://www.flickr.com/photos/fdctsevilla/4174244018; Elizabeth Dodson Gray, “The world-map of patriarchy,” 1982 in Zell-Ravenheart, Green Egg Omelette: An Anthology of Art and Articles from the Legendary Pagan Journal, 111, 2008; Back: Third Hand: Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya 1976-1980: Diagram- Stelarc; Fig. 9.13: Case #2, John Money and Anke A. Ehrhardt, Man & Woman, Boy & Girl, 288, 1972.

Preface 7: From Fun With Our Family © 1962 by Savvas Learning Company LLC, copyright renewed 1990. Dick and Jane® is a registered trademark of Savvas Learning Company LLC. All rights reserved. Used by permission; 8: Vannevar Bush, “As We May Think,” July 1945, https://w.wiki/6kzp; 10: Anonymous, Zdena Koubková, 1936, https://w.wiki/6k$M; 11: LENNART NILSSON, TT / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY.

Introduction 12: Anonymous, “Bild-Lilli Doll,” https://www.bukowskis.com/en/lots/1197813-bild-lilli-doll-germany-1955-1964; 13: Fig. 1. in Masahiro Mori, “The Uncanny Valley,” 1970, GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2, https://web.archive.org/web/20060219050803/http://www.androidscience.com/theuncannyvalley/proceedings2005/uncannyvalley.html; 14: Alex Wong/Getty Images News via Getty Images; 15: Copyright Index Newspapers LLC; 16: Derek Simeone, “Seattle People Department,” June 13, 2020, CC BY 2.0, https://www.flickr.com/photos/dereksimeone/50004505417/; 17: Derek Bryceson; 18: Bettmann/Contributor via Getty Images; 18: Jeff Topping/New York Times/Redux; 19: Dr. Ron Cohn / © The Gorilla Foundation / Koko.org; 20: Fig. 6., “Eine Kolonne von Eciton auf dem Marsche,” in Joseph Meyer, Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 5th ed, 1895-1897; 22: James Backhouse Walker, “Lantern Slide of Tasmanian Aboriginal man Woureddy, native of Bruny Island, Van Diemen’s Land,” University of Tasmania Library Special and Rare Materials Collection, Australia, https://eprints.utas.edu.au/6477/; 22: NASA’s Earth Observing-1 Satellite, North Sentinel Island, Andaman Sea, November 20, 2009, https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/42136/north-sentinel-island-andaman-sea; 23: Willem van de Poll, National Archives of the Netherlands / Photo collection Van de Poll; 24: Anonymous, Culture Areas in North America, 1913, Popular Science Monthly Volume 82, https://w.wiki/6k$N; 28: Science History Images/Alamy; 29: National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of the children of Ruth Asawa; 30: Wcalvin at English Wikipedia, “Social gathering of six bonobos at the San Diego Zoo,” March 3, 2006, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://w.wiki/6mZg; 31: Michael Hardy, Shulamith Firestone; 35: Astronauts aboard the International Space Station, “Scandinavia at Night,” April 3, 2015, NASA, https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/85855/scandinavia-at-night.

Part I 36–37: Frank Gaillard, “Blast Injury to Hand,” May 18, 2018, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0, https://radiopaedia.org/cases/blast-injury-to-hand.

Chapter 1 40: Fratelli Bocca, Cesare Lombroso, “Anomalie dei solchi palmari nei normali e nei criminali,” 1897, https://www.flickr.com/photos/fdctsevilla/4174086442/; 42: Michelangelo, 1504; Gerbrant, September 7, 2007, https://w.wiki/6k$Q.

Chapter 2 50: Doggerelblogger, “RH-LH sidebents,” March 3, 2022, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://w.wiki/6k$R; 59: The General Synod Archives, Anglican Church of Canada. / ​​Old Sun School, Gleichen, Alta. - Senior classroom. - P75-103 S7-184, 1945, Anonymous, http://archives.anglican.ca/en/permalink/graphics1916; 61: Anonymous, “purple left hands,” E38ytbAX0AUOz95, https://twitter.com/AmericanIndian8/status/1404917883692535808/photo/2; 61: Anonymous, “Hands at the Cuevas de las Manos upon Río Pinturas,” 2005, https://w.wiki/6k$S.

Chapter 3 63: Print Collector/Hulton Archives via Getty Images; 64: © The Trustees of the British Museum; 65: Gallery Bilderwelt/Hulton Archives via Getty Images; 66: United States Marshal branding the author, RC12181, Reference Collection, State Library and Archives of Florida, 1870, https://supremecourt.flcourts.gov/content/download/243675/file/Evolution-of-Justice-2021.pdf; 66: Southworth & Hawes, “The Branded Hand of Captain Jonathan Walker,” August 1845, The Massachusetts Historical Society, https://w.wiki/6k$T; 67: Basilica of Sant’Apollinare Nuovo, ca. 6th century, https://seeinggodinart.wordpress.com/2015/02/23/sheep-or-goat/; 68: Bettman/Bedman via Getty Images; 69: Romano Cagnoni/RETIRED/Hulton Archives via Getty Images; 69: “Large and Small Intellects” in L. Fowler and Orson Squire Fowler, The Illustrated Self-Instructor in Phrenology and Physiology, 1855, https://www.gerda-henkel-stiftung.de/Lorenz_Menschenzucht; 70: Fig. I. in Gina Lombroso Ferrero, Criminal Man, 39, 1911, https://wellcomecollection.org/works/xs639uwk/items?canvas=39; 72: Fig. 2. in Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, And Selection in Relation to Sex, 17, 1874, https://w.wiki/6sVK; 72: Andre Ueberbach, Eigene Aufnahme, 2007, CC BY-SA 2.0 DE, https://w.wiki/6k$U; 72: Fig. 28 in Gina Lombroso Ferrero, Criminal Man, 280, 1911, https://wellcomecollection.org/works/xs639uwk/items?canvas=280; 73: Fig. 1, Fig. 2. in Cesare Lombroso, L’Uomo Delinquente, 28, 1876, https://archive.org/details/luomodelinquente00lomb/page/28/; 75: Anonymous, Sigmund Freud and Wilhelm Fliess, 1890, https://w.wiki/6k$V.

Part II 78–79: iStock.com/LYagovy.

Chapter 4 82: Heinz Haber, The Walt Disney Story of Our Friend the Atom, 1956; 83: Allstar Picture Library Limited/Alamy; 83: Jetsons, Everett Collection, Inc; 84: Printed by permission of the Norman Rockwell Family Agency Copyright ©1943 the Norman Rockwell Family Entities; 86: Thomas Low Nichols, Portrait of Mary Gove Nichols, 1887, https://w.wiki/6k$W; 89: CBS Photo Archive/CBS via Getty Images; 89: Walter Fischer/ullstein bild via Getty Images; 90: Tamarin, SWNS, 2021; 90: Anonymous, The New Poor Law poster, 1837, The National Archives, UK; 91: duncan1890 via Getty Images; 92: Anonymous, Fela Women, https://www.nigerianeye.com/2013/10/i-cant-understand-why-my-father-married.html; 92: Raja Ravi Varma, Draupadi and Pandavas, 1910, https://w.wiki/6k$X; 93: King Naser al-Din al-Qajari, Selfie, 1923, https://twitter.com/leiloonm/status/541429849106423808; 96: Rick Guidice, NASA ID Number: AC75-1086, 1970s, NASA Ames Research Center, https://space.nss.org/settlement/nasa/70sArtHiRes/70sArt/art.html.

Chapter 4.5 98: Fabbula TV, Donna Haraway / Speculative Fabulation, May 24, 2016, CC BY 3.0, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zFGXTQnJETg; 98–99: Alexander von Humboldt, “Idealer Durchschnitt von der Bildung der Erdrinde,” 1850, https://w.wiki/6n9F; 99: Alexander von Humboldt, “Selbstportrait in Paris,” 1814, https://w.wiki/6k$Y; 100: “Great chain of being” in Didacus Valades, Rhetorica christiana, 1579, https://w.wiki/6k$Z; 101: Jcmurphy at English Wikipedia, “Lord Bacon Stamp,” 1910, https://w.wiki/6k$a; 101: Gian Lorenzo Bernini, “Rape of Proserpina,” 1621-1622, photo by Int3gr4te, January 20, 2007, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://w.wiki/6k$b; 102: Heinrich Berghaus, “Umrisse Der Pflanzengeographie,” 1838, David Rumsey Historical Map Collection, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0, https://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~1~1526~160064:Umrisse-Der-Pflanzengeographie; 103: Emblem 2d: “Nutrix ejus terra est.” in Michael Maier, Atalanta Fugiens, 1618, https://w.wiki/6k$e; 103: NASA/Bill Anders, “Earthrise,” December 24, 1968, https://w.wiki/6k$d; 104: © Oberon Zell www.TheMillennialGaia.com; 105: © Zell; 107: Bernard Spragg, “Schizophyllum commune (Split gill),” March 14, 2017, CC0 1.0, https://w.wiki/6k$f; 108: “Lynn Margulis at her Boston University Lab in the early 1970s.” Used by permission of the estate of Lynn Margulis; 109: © Zell; 109: © Zell; 110: © Zell; 111: Anonymous, “Stirpicults,” 1887, https://tontine255.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/eugneics-children-c1887.jpg; 112: Dr. John B. Ellis, “The upper sitting-room, Oneida Community, ‘the childrens hour’,” 1870, https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2022636499/; 112: Elizabeth Dodson Gray, “The world-map of patriarchy,” 1982 in Zell-Ravenheart, Green Egg Omelette: An Anthology of Art and Articles from the Legendary Pagan Journal, 111, 2008; 113: © Zell; 115: © Zell.

Chapter 5 119: Salar Arkan - سالار ارکان, “A grandma and her grandchild watching ‘Nowruz’ ceremony,” March 26, 2017, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://w.wiki/6TwM; 122: Anonymous, “Vintage Gay,” 1918, https://bosguydotcom.files.wordpress.com/2021/02/vintage-gay-3.25.21-oldmasc-ig.png; 123: Anonymous, “This Is The Life,” ca. 1910, https://w.wiki/6k$g; 123: PopTech, PT5_4589, October 20, 2017, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://www.flickr.com/photos/poptech/26512715299/; 123: Roman Robinson, Portrait of Dan Savage; 126: Rory Midhani, “The Bloomsbury Group,” http://www.rorymidhani.com/; 129: Bisexual Resource Center, “Bidentification Card,” 2014, https://images.app.goo.gl/vw7oVKuTX99uSTYf6.

Chapter 6 130: Anonymous, “[Elizabeth Blackwell, 1821-1910, oval bust, wearing wedding veil]”, ca. 1877, Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005679734/; 132: Anonymous, “Lavinia Lloyd Dock,” https://w.wiki/6o3j; 133: M.W. Ridley, “Her majesty Queen Victoria and the members of the royal family,” July 14, 1877, https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003679744/; 134: Manchester Libraries, Information and Archives; 134: Bain News Service, “Syrian children,” ca. 1910–15, https://www.loc.gov/item/2014698957/; 134: T. Bell, Kalogynomia: or, The Laws of Female Beauty Being the Elementary Principles of that Science, 407, 1899; 135: Lehmann, “Richard v. Krafft-Ebing,” 1903, https://w.wiki/6k$h; 135: Wiener Tagblatt, “Comtesse Sarolta Vay,” Wellcome Collection, CC BY 4.0, https://wellcomecollection.org/works/fwvqptww/items; 137: Sueddeutsche Zeitung Photo/Alamy; 138: Lafayette Photo, “Portrait of Sarah Bernhardt as Hamlet,” July 1899, https://w.wiki/6k$i; 139: AP Photo/John F. Urwiller; 141: Photo by Kay Tobin © Manuscripts and Archives Division, The New York Public Library; 142: © Bolerium Books Inc; 144: Otis Historical Archives National Museum of Health and Medicine, “Bergonic chair,” CC BY 2.0, https://w.wiki/6k$j; 145: Figure XII-7, Figure XII-8, Heath, Robert G., Hal C. Becker, Leona Bersadsky, Robert M. Corrigan, Arthur W. Epstein, Warren L. Founds, Francisco Garcia Bengochea et al. Studies in Schizophrenia: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Mind-Brain Relationships. Harvard University Press, 1954, as cited in O’Neal, Christen M., Cordell M. Baker, Chad A. Glenn, Andrew K. Conner, and Michael E. Sughrue. “Dr. Robert G. Heath: A Controversial Figure in the History of Deep Brain Stimulation.” Neurosurgical Focus 43, no. 3 (2017): E12. https://doi.org/10.3171/2017.6.FOCUS17252.

Chapter 7 152: Copyright © 2017, The Trustees of Indiana University on behalf of the Kinsey-Institute. All rights reserved; 153: Blaise Agüera y Arcas; 154: Kay Tobin, “Germantown couple on porch #1,” 1977, New York Public Library Digital Collections, Manuscripts and Archives Division, https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e3-b5c0-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99; 155: Anonymous, “Vintage Lesbian Couples,” ca. 1890, https://i0.wp.com/themindcircle.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Vintage-Lesbian-Couples-1.jpg; 160: Clément Ader, “Clément Ader Avion III,” 1897, photo by Roby CC BY-SA 2.0 BE, https://w.wiki/6k$k; 160: Manchester Daily Express/SSPL via Getty Images; 161: iStock.com/panda3800.

Chapter 8 166: Blaise Agüera y Arcas; 169: Frank McCarthy, “Cosmopolitan,” 1971 https://pulpcovers.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/20395179-mccarthy_cosmo_aug711.jpg; 173: Johann Friedrich Overbeck, “Italia und Germania,” 1811-1828, https://w.wiki/6n9J.

Chapter 9 174: Wilde Douglas British Library B20147-85, Gillman & Co, May 1893, https://w.wiki/6k$m; 177: Kay Addams, Cover of Warped Desire, 1960, https://pulpcovers.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Beacon-B289-1960.jpg; 178: Lesbian Bar Project LLC; 180: Hon F L G, Swell’s Night Guide Through the Metropolis, 1841, https://www.thelondoneconomic.com/entertainment/revealing-guide-to-victorian-londons-secret-brothels-and-prostitutes-unearthed-107489/; 181: E. J. Bellocq, Accession No. 36.2004, International Center of Photography, https://www.icp.org/browse/archive/objects/storyville-portrait-new-orleans-2; 182: Christopher D’Alton, Watercolour drawing, 1862. Wellcome Collection, Public Domain Mark, https://wellcomecollection.org/works/ydfz8zpr; 183: CCI ARCHIVES / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY; 184: Albert V. Todd, Surgical Appliance, May 29, 1903, US patent 745,264, https://patents.google.com/patent/US745264A/en.

Chapter 10 191: AWang (WMF), “Gender recognition pins cropped,” September 9, 2016, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://w.wiki/6k$n.

Chapter 11 196: Sam Levin / Guardian, Sara Kelly Keenan’s birth certificate, 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/11/intersex-rights-gender-sara-kelly-keenan-birth-certificate; 197: Ted Mark, The Nude Who Did, 1970, With permission from Penguin Random House LLC; 198: John Money, “External Genital Differentiation in the Human Fetus” in Man & Woman, Boy & Girl: The Differentiation and Dimorphism of Gender Identity from Conception to Maturity, 44, 1972; 199: Quigley, Charmian A., Alessandra De Bellis, Keith B. Marschke, Mostafa K. El-Awady, Elizabeth M. Wilson, and Frank S. French. “Androgen Receptor Defects: Historical, Clinical, and Molecular Perspectives.” Endocrine reviews 16, no. 3 (1995): 271-321. Scan by Jonathan.Marcus, “Quigley Scale,” September 9, 2010, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://w.wiki/6k$o. Animation by Mrityunjay Marol, https://jaymarol.com/; 201: Anonymous, “Nettie Stevens,” 1909, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, http://triptych.brynmawr.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/BMC_photoarc/id/165/rec/1; 202: Raquel Baranow, “Two Colored Rose Chimera,” January 25, 2020, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://w.wiki/6k$p; 202: fy0h18wxd9c51, https://www.instagram.com/gataquimera/; 202: Taylor Muhl, “Chimerism self portrait,” https://www.livescience.com/61890-what-is-chimerism-fused-twin.html; 203: Victor, “Albino Peacock,” December 7, 2007, https://www.flickr.com/photos/thebeeb/2137844739/in/dateposted/; 204: Ksaviano, “Orchids,” August 1, 2010, CC BY 3.0, https://w.wiki/6k$q; 206: Hammond, Sexual Impotence in the Male, 1883; 207–208: Fig. 33. Case 1; Fig. 55. Case 3; Fig. 61. Case 5. in Hugh Hampton Young. Genital Abnormalities, Hermaphroditism and Related Adrenal Diseases. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1937. Drawings by William P. Didush; 209: Randal Alan Smith, “Annie headshot,” April 10, 2005, GNU Free Documentation License, https://w.wiki/6k$r.

Chapter 11.5 210: John Money, Venuses Penuses: Sexology, Sexosophy, and Exigency Theory, 69, 1986; 210: Bruce/Brenda/David Reimer, Drawing, https://www.healthyplace.com/gender/inside-intersexuality/the-true-story-of-john-joan; 211: Waldemar Kaempffert, Harris A Ewing, page 18, Saturday Evening Post, May 24, 1941, https://w.wiki/6k$u; 211: John Money and Anke A. Ehrhardt, Man & Woman, Boy & Girl: The Differentiation and Dimorphism of Gender Identity from Conception to Maturity, 1972; 212: Anonymous, Janet Frame, https://www.textpublishing.com.au/authors/janetframe; 212: Fig. 4., photo by Theo Schoon in Eli Coleman, John Money: A Tribute (on the occasion of his 70th birthday), 72, 1991; 213: Robert Lawson, “Plan of Seacliff Hospital,” 1902, https://w.wiki/6k$s; 214: Archives New Zealand, “Picture of Nurses,” June 15, 2020, https://w.wiki/6k$t; 216: Table 1, John Money, Paraphilias, in Venuses Penuses, 441, 1986; 217: John Money, Venuses Penuses, 225, 1986; 218: C. Overzier, Intersexuality, Mainz, 173-74, 1963; 219: Table III, John Money, Venuses Penuses, 176, 1986; 220: Waldemar Kaempffert, Harris A Ewing, page 18, Saturday Evening Post, May 24, 1941, https://w.wiki/6k$u; 220: Eli Coleman, David Suisted, John Money: A Tribute (on the occasion of his 70th birthday), 78, 1991; 222: Hoey committee, “Employment of Homosexuals and Other Sex Perverts in Government,” December 15, 1950, https://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2016/summer/lavender.html; 223: Table II, III, John Money, Venuses Penuses: Sexology, Sexosophy, and Exigency Theory, 155, 1986; 224: Fig 8.8, John Money, Anke A. Ehrhardt, Man & Woman, Boy & Girl, 173, 1972; 224: Fig. 9.13, Fig. 9.14: Case #2., John Money and Anke A. Ehrhardt, Man & Woman, Boy & Girl, 288, 1972; 225: Fig. 9.10: Case #2., John Money and Anke A. Ehrhardt, Man & Woman, Boy & Girl, 286, 1972; 225: Anonymous, Portrait of Janet Reimer with Bruce and Brian, https://www.dailystar.co.uk/news/world-news/tragic-life-boy-raised-girl-24473250; 226: Anonymous, Portrait of Bruce/Brenda Reimer, https://medium.com/lessons-from-history/this-boy-committed-suicide-because-he-was-raised-as-a-girl-for-a-scientific-experiment-d18a99888dd7; 227: Fig. 1., Reinisch et al., “Sex Differences in Developmental Milestones during the First Year of Life,” in Eli Coleman, John Money: A Tribute (on the occasion of his 70th birthday), 31, 1991; 229: Table 6.1, John Money, Anke A. Ehrhardt, Man & Woman, Boy & Girl, 106, 1972; 230: Anonymous, Portrait of David Reimer, In Memory of David Reimer, Facebook; 230: Anonymous, David and Jane Reimer, https://www.dailystar.co.uk/news/world-news/tragic-life-boy-raised-girl-24473250; 231–32: Anonymous, John Money’s apartment, https://www.esgallery.co.nz/john-money-collection.

Chapter 12 234: W. T. Bovie, “Electrosurgical Apparatus,” January 18, 1928, US patent 1,813,902 https://patents.google.com/patent/US1813902A/en; 235: Down Home Auctions LLC, “Vintage Portable Bovie electro surgical unit,” August 29, 2018, https://www.proxibid.com/Art-Antiques-Collectibles/Collectibles/Vintage-Portable-Bovie-electro-surgical-unit/lotInformation/43856716; 238: Hugh Hampton Young, Genital Abnormalities, Hermaphroditism and Related Adrenal Diseases, 1937; 241: Fig. 1., John Money, Venuses Penuses: Sexology, Sexosophy, and Exigency Theory, 194, 1988; 243: Kat Jercich, Rewire News Group, Originally published August 13, 2018; 244: Ambroise Paré, “An hermaphrodite in Des monstres et prodiges,” 1585, https://juliamartins.co.uk/they-seemed-neither-and-yet-both-hermaphroditism-and-binary-categories; 244: United States Agency for International Development, “A group of Hijra in Bangladesh,” February 7, 2010, https://w.wiki/6k$x; 245: John K. Hillers, “We-Wa, a Zuni berdache, weaving,” https://w.wiki/6t98.

Chapter 13 255: Courtesy of MGM Media Licensing; 255: Eusebio Gómez, La Mala Vida en Buenos Aires, 184, 1908; 264: Buck Angel, “Buck Angel Headshot,” October 26, 2010, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://w.wiki/6nWM.

Chapter 14 265: Anonymous, “Alan Turning Aged 16,” ca. 1928, https://w.wiki/oZx; 272: J. Patrick Fischer, “Bactrian Camel in Shanghai Zoo,” December 30, 2011, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://w.wiki/6nWN; 273: Florian Prischl, “Camelus dromedarius in Nuweiba,” October 28, 2007, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://w.wiki/6nWP; 278: Turk, Matthew A., and Alex P. Pentland. “Face Recognition Using Eigenfaces.” In Proceedings. 1991 IEEE computer society conference on computer vision and pattern recognition, pp. 586-587. IEEE Computer Society, 1991; 278: Karen Donnelly, Raimond de Weerdt and Tony Nott, “The ‘average’ Sydneysider,” 2006, https://www.smh.com.au/technology/technology-plots-the-average-face-of-sydney--and-the-rest-of-the-world-20110211-1ap3w.html; 279: Galton Papers, (GALTON/1/2/5/4/2), UCL Special Collections, UCL Archives, London; 280: Francis Galton, Inquiries Into Human Faculty and Its Development, 342, 1883; 280: Francis Galton, Inquiries Into Human Faculty and Its Development, frontispiece, 1883; 281: AT&T Laboratories Cambridge, “Eigenfaces,” December 01, 2005, https://w.wiki/6nWQ; 283: Wu, Xiaolin, and Xi Zhang. “Automated inference on criminality using face images.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1611.04135 (2016): 4038-4052; 284: Alexander Todorov/Social Perception Lab; 284: Chicago Tribune, “Patrick Eugene Joseph Prendergast,” July 13, 1894, https://w.wiki/6nWR; 284: V. G. Rocine, Heads, Faces, Types, Races, 181, 1910, https://archive.org/details/headsfacestypes00roci/page/180/mode/2up; 287: Wang, Yilun, and Michal Kosinski, Composite images of gay and straight subjects, “Deep Neural Networks Are More Accurate than Humans at Detecting Sexual Orientation from Facial Images.” Journal of personality and social psychology 114, no. 2 (2018): 246; 294: Blaise Agüera y Arcas, Selfies; 295: V. G. Rocine, Heads, Faces, Types, Races, 171, 1910, https://archive.org/details/headsfacestypes00roci/page/170/mode/2up; 296: C. Lombroso, “Physiognomies of Russian criminals,” La donna delinquente: la prostituta e la donna normale, Tav. VII, 1893.

Chapter 15 298: Abi Bechtel, “Don’t do this, @Target,” June 2, 2015, https://twitter.com/abianne/status/605503223575781376; 299: Toca Boca, Toca Life Stories, 2020, https://kidscreen.com/2020/02/21/toca-boca-launches-first-animated-series/; 300: Jose Ramon Pacheco, “Phrenology,” 1835, https://w.wiki/6nWT; 302: Antoine Claudet, Daguerreotype of Charles Babbage, ca. 1847–51 https://w.wiki/6nWU; 302: Margaret Sarah Carpenter, Portrait of Ada Lovelace, 1836, https://w.wiki/4rnk; 303: C. Lombroso and E.G. Ferrero, Donna delinquente, 423, 1893; 304: OJ Slaughter, Violinist Hilary Hahn; 306: Theodor de Bry, Brevis narratio eorum quae in Florida Americae provincia, XXI., 1591; 307: David Livingstone, “Female Elephant Pursued with Javelins,” 1857, https://w.wiki/7Agk; 308: Sir Edward Baines, “Power loom weaving,” 1835, CC-BY-4.0, https://w.wiki/6nWV; 309: Bettye Lane, Schlesinger Library, Harvard Radcliffe Institute; 310: Najell AB, najell.com; 310: E. M. Greenberg, “Artificial Womb,” July 22, 1954, https://w.wiki/6nWW; 313: Liv Boeree, https://twitter.com/liv_boeree/status/1445868089539588100; 314: Peter Steiner, New Yorker, July 5, 1993, www.CartoonStock.com; 315: Blaise Agüera y Arcas, FaceApp portraits.

Part III 316–17: Ingmar Bergman, “Antonius Block plays chess with Death,” The Seventh Seal, 1957, Svensk Filmindustri.

Chapter 16 318: PictureLux / The Hollywood Archive / Alamy Stock Photo; 319: Averater, “Tataouine by night,” December 25, 2012, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://w.wiki/6nWX; 320: William Tung, “A cosplay of Jabba’s slave,” Oola, April 18, 2015, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://w.wiki/6nWY; 320: Ann Bannon, Robert McGinnis, Cover of Beebo Brinker, 1962, https://pulpcovers.com/beebo-brinker/; 321: Domenico Passignano, “Bathers at San Niccolo,” 1600, https://w.wiki/6nWZ; 322: Moofpocket, “Monticello veggie garden,” October 13, 2005, CC-BY-SA 3.0, https://w.wiki/6nWa; 323: National Interregional Highway Committee, Interregional Highways, 1944, https://archive.org/details/interregional-highways/page/n53/mode/1up; 327: NASA Earth Observatory images by Joshua Stevens, using Suomi NPP VIIRS data from Miguel Román, NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center; 328: Dennis Jarvis, Vietnam-2145, February 1, 2009, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://www.flickr.com/photos/22490717@N02/3554229659; 332: Andreas Praefcke, “Dallas skyline and suburbs,” 2009, CC BY 3.0, https://w.wiki/6nWb; 336: Matthew McPherson, “Castro San Francisco flag,” September 6, 2006, CC BY-SA 2.5, https://w.wiki/6nWc; 344: Bettmann/Bettmann via Getty Images.

Chapter 17 345: Antoine Pesne, Portrait of Prince Henry of Prussia, 1745, https://w.wiki/6nWd; 349: Nelson, Robert K., Ladale Winling, Richard Marciano, and Nathan Connolly. “Lower East Side street,” dsc_ls_092, DOS: Sanitation & Street Cleaning, 1890-1900, https://nycma.lunaimaging.com/luna/servlet/detail/RECORDSPHOTOUNITARC~36~36~1282781~163070; 350: Albert duce, “Abandoned Packard Automobile Factory Detroit,” October 25, 2009, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://w.wiki/6nWe; 351: Nelson, Robert K., Ladale Winling, Richard Marciano, and Nathan Connolly. “Mapping Inequality.” Edited by Robert K. Nelson and Edward L. Ayers. American Panorama, 2021. https://dsl.richmond.edu/panorama/redlining/#loc=12/29.889/-90.089&city=new-orleans-la, licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0; 352: John Vachon, “Farmer waiting for supplies which he is buying cooperatively at Roanoke Farms, North Carolina,” 1938, Library of Congress, FSA/OWI collection, https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/fsa/item/2017762423/; 369: Harper & Brothers, Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 11., 1857, https://archive.org/details/harpersweeklyv11bonn/page/172/mode/1up.

Chapter 18 370–71: Bernt Notke, “Danse Macabre in Tallinn,” 1475/ 1499, https://w.wiki/6nWf; 373: The Nuremberg Chronicle of Hartmann Schedel, “Nuremberg chronicles - Dance of Death (CCLXIIIIv),” 1440-1514, https://w.wiki/6nWg; 374: John Linnell, Portrait of Thomas Robert Malthus, 1834, Wellcome Collection, Public Domain Mark, https://wellcomecollection.org/works/yaa9pmyb; 375: 余集 绘, “Hong Liangji,” Qing Dynasty, https://w.wiki/6nWj; 377: “The Plowman” from Hans Holbein’s Simolachri, Historie, e Figure de la Morte, 1549; 378: Hans Holbein the Younger, “Holbein Danse Macabre 39,” 1497, https://w.wiki/6nWk; 380: Hans Holbein, “The Dance of Death: Expulsion from Paradise; Adam Cultivating the Ground,” CC0 1.0, https://w.wiki/6nWm; 381: Aga Szidlick, Namibia- San Tribe, 2016; 381: Kortcentralen Helsingfors, “Sami family Finland,” 1936, https://w.wiki/6nWr; 384: Michel Serre, “Chevalier Roze à la Tourette,” 1720, https://w.wiki/6nWn; 384: Pieter Brueghel the Elder, “The Triumph of Death,” 1526, Museo del Prado, https://w.wiki/6nWo; 385: George Heriot Swanston, “Patrick Bell ́s reaping machine,” 1851, https://w.wiki/6nWp; 386: Keystone-France/Gamma-Keystone via Getty Images; 387: Anonymous, “Both of these men had syphilis,” 1941 - 1945, National Archives Catalog, NAID 513979, https://w.wiki/6nWq; 387–92: Donella H. Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows, Jørgen Randers, William W. Behrens III, The Limits to Growth, A Report for the Club of Rome’s Project on the Predicament of Mankind, 1972; 397: The Donella Meadows Project.

Chapter 19 399: Anonymous, “Casanova and the Condom,” 1872, Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/item/2004665384/; 400: Bettmann/Bettmann via Getty Images; 401: Margaret Sanger, “Birth Control Review,” November 1923, in The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger. HQ764.S3 A25 2003, CSUN University Library, Special Collections & Archives; 404: Lewis Wickes Hines, “Eight year old Jennie Camillo lives in West Maniyunk, Pa., September 1910,” The U.S. National Archives, https://www.flickr.com/photos/usnationalarchives/7496183108/; 405: Lewis Wickes Hine, “488 Macon, Ga. Lewis W. Hine 1-19-. Bibb Mill No. 1 Many youngsters here. . . . ,” 1909. Photograph. https://www.loc.gov/item/2018674998/; 405: Bettmann/Bettmann via Getty Images; 408: Anthony Crider, “Charlottesville ‘Unite the Right’ Rally,” August 12, 2017, CC BY 2.0, https://w.wiki/6k$8; 409: Bettmann/Bettmann via Getty Images.

Chapter 20 410: Anonymous, “Psalter World Map,” ca.1265, https://w.wiki/6k$A; 410: Asheville Postcard Company, “Rockport Harbor, Rockport, Maine,” ca. 1930–1945, https://w.wiki/6k$E; 410: Anonymous, “West Clock Factory, La Salle, Ill.,” ca. 1920s, https://www.ebay.com/itm/255829266948; 411: Courtesy of The Strong, Rochester, New York; 411: Asheville Postcard Company, “Home of J. E. Ranch, Waverly, N. Y.,” ca. 1912, https://www.etsy.com/listing/1222264610/wavery-ny-farm-postcard-vintage-color; 411: Asheville Postcard Company, “A Mountain Stream In Autumn When Nature Paints A Perfect Picture,” ca. 1912, https://www.ebay.com/itm/324963005638; 412: NurPhoto/NurPhoto via Getty Images; 413: Katrinshine/Alamy Stock Photo; 414: Toby Howard/Shutterstock; 414: Hubert Robert, “A Hermit Praying in the Ruins of a Roman Temple,” 1760, https://w.wiki/6k$F; 415: B137, “Abandoned farmhouse, overgrown,” May 4, 2010, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://w.wiki/6k$G; 417: E. B. White, Charlotte’s Web, 1952. Illustrated by Garth Williams; 417: Bill Peet, Farewell to Shady Glade, 1976; 419: Tesla Motors, “Tesla Fremont Factory,” https://insideevs.uol.com.br/news/498262/biden-plano-incentivos-carros-eletricos/; 420: CNC Industries, “Fastem 8760 Multi Level System,” https://cncind.com/flexible-manufacturing-system/; 420: Tim Rue, www.timrue.com; 421: kees torn, MAERSK MC KINNEY MÖLLER & MARSEILLE MAERSK, September 6, 2019, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://www.flickr.com/photos/68359921@N08/48694054418/; 421: “Douglas County servers” by Google LLC; 422: Watchara Phomicinda/MediaNews Group/The Press-Enterprise via Getty Images; 423: Amazon Technologies Inc, “System and Method for Transporting Personnel Within An Active Workspace,” 2016, US Patent 9,280,157 B2 https://patents.google.com/patent/US9280157B2/en; 423: AGROBOT, “agrobot,” 2019, https://grist.org/food/self-driving-tractors-robot-apple-pickers-witness-the-high-tech-future-of-farming/; 424: Anonymous, “R2D2 and C3PO,” 1982, https://www.corriere.it/tecnologia/19_maggio_31/history-moments-profilo-twitter-che-ci-riporta-indietro-tempo-7bb413da-8378-11e9-89bd-2f20504508c1-bc_11.shtml; 424: FANUC, “M-2000iA/1700L,” https://ia-robotics.com/fanuc-m-2000-1700l-car-lift/; 425: Grendelkhan, “Waymo self-driving car front view,” February 24, 2017, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://w.wiki/6k$J; 426: Frans Lemmens/Corbis Unreleased via Getty Images; 427: iStock.com/polybutmono; 428: Thomas Schoch, “Road Train Australia,” August 3, 2005, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://w.wiki/6k$K; 429: Paulo Fridman/Corbis Historical via Getty Images; 429: e-agro.tech, Agricultural field, https://e-agro.tech/; 430: Tom Hegen, No. TGS06, Greenhouse Series, https://www.tomhegen.com/collections/the-greenhouse-series; 430: Luca Locatelli/Institute; 431: John F. Martin for General Motors, “Cadillac Urban Gardens,” August, 2012; 431: Lufa Farms, “Aerial view of Lufa Farms,” July 13, 2013, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://w.wiki/6k$L; 432: Fifth Season, “Vertical farm,” https://www.governing.com/next/robots-take-vertical-farming-to-new-heights; 432: Skyward Kick Productions/Shutterstock; 433: Klaus Leidorf, “European Green Belt,” August, 2003; 434: Dale Kakkak; 438: 2019 Meridith Kohut.

Chapter 21 443: Third Hand: Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya 1976-1980: Photo- T. Ike, Diagram- Stelarc; 445: Underwood Archives/Photo Archive via Getty Images; 447: IMAGO / United Archives.