About the publication
Who Are We Now

Blaise Agüera y Arcas

From leading AI researcher Blaise Agüera y Arcas comes an exploration of how biology, ecology, sexuality, history, and culture have intertwined to create a dynamic “us” that can neither be called natural nor artificial.

A beautiful physical edition is available from Hat & Beard Press.

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Identity politics occupies the frontline in today’s culture wars, pitting generations against each other, and progressive cities against the rural traditions of our past. Rich in data and detail, Who Are We Now? goes beyond today’s headlines to connect our current reality to a larger more-than-human story.

At the heart of the book is a set of surveys conducted between 2016 and 2021, asking thousands of anonymous respondents all over the United States questions about their behavior and identity, and especially about gender and sexuality. The resulting window into people’s lives is a bit like that of the Kinsey Reports, which scandalized postwar America more than 70 years ago. Today, the landscape is—in every sense—even queerer. Twentieth century heterosexual “normalcy” is on the wane, particularly among young and urban people.

The landscape outside has changed too. After millennia of being fruitful and multiplying, we’ve strained, and exceeded, planetary limits. Domesticated animals far outweigh wildlife, and many species are in catastrophic decline. Yet curiously, our own population is poised to begin collapsing this century too, our fertility now curbed by choice rather than by premature death. Is this the end of humanity—or the beginning?

“A fascinating, provocative account of the contradictions and complications of identity and community in the technological age.” Sonia Katyal, Distinguished Law Professor and Co-director, Center for Law and Technology, UC Berkeley School of Law

“This is that rare book that not only explores a fascinating topic, but that teaches you how to think more deeply about any topic. Insightful and original.” Tim O’Reilly, Author, publisher, and founder of O’Reilly Media

About the author

Blaise Agüera y Arcas is a frequent speaker at TED and many other conferences, winner of MIT’s TR35 Prize and Fast Company’s Most Creative People award, and a Vice President and Fellow at Google Research. He leads a 500-person team working on Artificial Intelligence (AI), large language models, smart devices, technology ethics, and privacy. Publicly visible projects from his team include Federated Learning, Artists and Machine Intelligence, Coral, and many AI features in Pixel and Android. In 2016, he wrote a widely read essay on the relationship between art and technology, and in 2017 he co-authored another popular essay on physiognomy and bias in AI and a refutation of claims that facial structure reveals sexual orientation. Some of this material has been incorporated into the book’s third and fourteenth chapters. His early involvement in large language models and generative AI prompted op-eds in the Economist and essays in Noēma, as well as inspiring the novella Ubi Sunt, also published by Hat & Beard Press.

Connect with Blaise

For press inquiries, please contact Noah Bethke ([email protected])



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Introduction: Anonymous identity

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Chapter 1: Whom to believe?

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Chapter 2: The excluded middle

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Chapter 3: Stigma and inferiority

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Chapter 4: Family models

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Interlude: Planetary consciousness

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Chapter 5: Nuclear meltdown

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Conley, Terri D., Amy C. Moors, Jes L. Matsick, and Ali Ziegler. “The Fewer the Merrier?: Assessing Stigma Surrounding Consensually Non-Monogamous Romantic Relationships.” Analyses of Social, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-2415.2012.01286.x.

Conley, Terri D., Ali Ziegler, and Amy C. Moors. “Backlash From the Bedroom: Stigma Mediates Gender Differences in Acceptance of Casual Sex Offers.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 37, no. 3 (September 1, 2013): 392–407.

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Haupert, M. L., Amanda N. Gesselman, Amy C. Moors, Helen E. Fisher, and Justin R. Garcia. “Prevalence of Experiences With Consensual Nonmonogamous Relationships: Findings From Two National Samples of Single Americans.” Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 43, no. 5 (July 4, 2017): 424–40.

Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer. Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding. Cambridge: Belknap Press, 2009.

Jia, Haomiao, and Erica I. Lubetkin. “Life Expectancy and Active Life Expectancy by Marital Status Among Older U.S. Adults: Results from the U.S. Medicare Health Outcome Survey (HOS).” SSM - Population Health 12 (December 2020): 100642.

Klein, Sabra L., and Katie L. Flanagan. “Sex Differences in Immune Responses.” Nature Reviews. Immunology 16, no. 10 (October 2016): 626–38.

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Manzoli, Lamberto, Paolo Villari, Giovanni M. Pirone, and Antonio Boccia. “Marital Status and Mortality in the Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Social Science & Medicine 64, no. 1 (January 2007): 77–94.

Mitchell, Kirstin R., Catherine H. Mercer, Philip Prah, Soazig Clifton, Clare Tanton, Kaye Wellings, and Andrew Copas. “Why Do Men Report More Opposite-Sex Sexual Partners Than Women? Analysis of the Gender Discrepancy in a British National Probability Survey.” Journal of Sex Research 56, no. 1 (January 2019): 1–8.

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Perel, Esther. Mating in Captivity: Sex, Lies and Domestic Bliss. London: Hodder, 2007.

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Rubin, Jennifer D., Amy C. Moors, Jes L. Matsick, Ali Ziegler, and Terri D. Conley. “On the Margins: Considering Diversity Among Consensually Non-Monogamous Relationships.” Special Issue on Polyamory. Journal für Psychologie 22, no. 1 (2014): 19–37.

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Savage, Dan. American Savage: Insights, Slights, and Fights on Faith, Sex, Love, and Politics. New York: Dutton, 2013.

Schweizer, Valerie. “Marriage: More than a Century of Change, 1900-2018.” Family Profiles 21 (2020).

Wei, Lan-Hai, Shi Yan, Yan Lu, Shao-Qing Wen, Yun-Zhi Huang, Ling-Xiang Wang, Shi-Lin Li, et al. “Whole-Sequence Analysis Indicates That the Y Chromosome C2*-Star Cluster Traces Back to Ordinary Mongols, Rather Than Genghis Khan.” European Journal of Human Genetics 26, no. 2 (February 2018): 230–37.

Chapter 6: The true mission of sex

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual: Mental Disorders (DSM-I). DSM Library. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 1952.

—. “Homosexuality and Sexual Orientation Disturbance: Proposed Change in DSM-II, 6th Printing, Page 44, Position Statement (retired).” APA Document Reference No. 730008. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 1973.

Bagemihl, Bruce. Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000.

Bergler, Edmund. Homosexuality: Disease or Way of Life? New York: Hill & Wang, Inc., 1956.

—. One Thousand Homosexuals: Conspiracy of Silence, or Curing and Deglamorizing Homosexuals? Paterson, New Jersey: Pageant Books, 1959.

Blackwell, Elizabeth. The Human Element in Sex: Being a Medical Inquiry into the Relation of Sexual Physiology to Christian Morality. London: J. & A. Churchill, 1894.

Dock, Lavinia L. Hygiene and Morality: A Manual for Nurses and Others, Giving an Outline of the Medical, Social, and Legal Aspects of the Venereal Diseases. New York: G. P. Putnam’s sons, 1910.

Goode, Erica. “On Gay Issue, Psychoanalysis Treats Itself.” New York Times. December 12, 1998. https://www.nytimes.com/1998/12/12/arts/on-gay-issue-psychoanalysis-treats-itself.html.

Heath, Robert G. “Pleasure and Brain Activity in Man: Deep and Surface Electroencephalograms During Orgasm.” The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 154, no. 1 (January 1972): 3–18.

Katz, Jonathan Ned. Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A.; A Documentary. New York: Crowell, 1976.

Krafft-Ebing, Richard von. Psychopathia Sexualis with Especial Reference to Contrary Sexual Instinct: A Medico-Legal Study; Authorized Translation of the Seventh Enlarged and Revised German Edition. Translated by Charles Gilbert Chaddock M. D. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1893.

Mak, Geertje. “Sandor/Sarolta Vay: From Passing Woman to Sexual Invert.” Journal of Women’s History 16, no. 1 (2004): 54–77.

Mbũgua, Karori. “Reasons to Suggest that the Endocrine Research on Sexual Preference Is a Degenerating Research Program.” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28, no. 3 (2006): 337–57.

“Medicine: The Strange World.” Time, November 9, 1959. https://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,811384,00.html.

O’Neal, Christen M., Cordell M. Baker, Chad A. Glenn, Andrew K. Conner, and Michael E. Sughrue. “Dr. Robert G. Heath: A Controversial Figure in the History of Deep Brain Stimulation.” Neurosurgical Focus 43, no. 3 (September 2017): E12.

“Robert Heath Society,” November 6, 2013. http://www.heathsociety.org/.

Schneider, David. The Invention of Surgery: A History of Modern Medicine: From the Renaissance to the Implant Revolution. New York: Pegasus Books, 2021.

Stanton, Henry. Sex: Avoided Subjects Discussed in Plain English. New York: Social Culture Publications, 1922.

Wells, Samuel Roberts. Wedlock; Or, the Right Relations of the Sexes: Disclosing the Laws of Conjugal Selection, and Showing Who May, and Who May Not Marry. New York: Fowler & Wells Co., 1884.

Chapter 7: Naturecultures of attraction

Blackmore, Susan J. The Meme Machine. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Chokshi, Niraj. “Yes, People Really Are Eating Tide Pods. No, It’s Not Safe.” New York Times. January 20, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/20/us/tide-pod-challenge.html.

Hale, Anne, Lindsay B. Miller, Jason Weaver, Sarah Quinn Husney, and Regina Henares. “The Dual Scales of Sexual Orientation.” Journal of Bisexuality 19, no. 4 (October 2, 2019): 483–514.

Henrich, Joseph, Steven J. Heine, and Ara Norenzayan. “The Weirdest People in the World?” The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33, no. 2-3 (June 2010): 61–83; discussion 83–135.

Kinsey, Alfred C., Wardell B. Pomeroy, and Clyde E. Martin. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1948.

Malone, Nicholas, and Kathryn Ovenden. “Natureculture.” In The International Encyclopedia of Primatology, 1–2. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., September 14, 2016. https://doi.org/[10.1002/9781119179313.wbprim0135](http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781119179313.wbprim0135).

Serb, Jeanne M., and Douglas J. Eernisse. “Charting Evolution’s Trajectory: Using Molluscan Eye Diversity to Understand Parallel and Convergent Evolution.” Evolution: Education and Outreach 1, no. 4 (September 25, 2008): 439–47.

Yoshino, Kenji. “Covering.” The Yale Law Journal 111, no. 4 (January 2002): 769.

Chapter 8: Female flexibility

Coffman, Katherine B., Lucas C. Coffman, and Keith M. Marzilli Ericson. “The Size of the LGBT Population and the Magnitude of Antigay Sentiment Are Substantially Underestimated.” Management Science 63, no. 10 (September 1, 2017): 3168–86.

Wikipedia. “Gray asexuality,” September 18, 2021. https://w.wiki/5Zdk.

Hensley, Christopher, and Richard Tewksbury. “Inmate-to-Inmate Prison Sexuality: A Review of Empirical Studies.” Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 3, no. 3 (July 1, 2002): 226–43.

Chapter 9: Pressure to conform

Acton, William. Prostitution, Considered in its Moral, Social, and Sanitary Aspects, in London and Other Large Cities: With Proposals for the Mitigation and Prevention of its Attendant Evils. London: J. Churchill, 1857.

—. The Functions and Disorders of the Reproductive Organs: In Childhood, Youth, Adult Age, and Advanced Life; Considered in Their Physiological, Social, and Moral Relations. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston, 1867.

Bergler, Edmund. Homosexuality: Disease or Way of Life? New York: Hill & Wang, Inc., 1956.

Blackwell, Elizabeth. Essays in Medical Sociology. London: Ernest Bell, 1902.

Burton-Cartledge, Phil. “Zombies and Ideology.” All That Is Solid … (blog), November 6, 2010. http://averypublicsociologist.blogspot.com/2010/11/zombies-and-ideology.html.

Compton, Julie. “A Year into Pandemic, America’s Remaining Lesbian Bars Are Barely Hanging On.” NBC News, April 4, 2021. http://www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/year-pandemic-america-s-remaining-lesbian-bars-are-barely-hanging-n1262936.

Flanders, Judith. “80,000 Prostitutes? The Myth of Victorian London’s Love Affair with Vice.” History News Network. Accessed December 23, 2022. https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/156189.

Graham, Sylvester. A Lecture to Young Men on Chastity: Intended Also for the Serious Consideration of Parents and Guardians. Boston: G.W. Light, 1838.

Hammond, William Alexander. Sexual Impotence in the Male. New York: Bermingham & Company, 1883.

Kellogg, John Harvey. Plain Facts for Old and Young. Burlington, IA: Segner & Condit, 1881.

Kimmel, Michael S. The History of Men: Essays on the History of American and British Masculinities. SUNY Press, 2005.

Robb, Graham. Strangers: Homosexual Love in the Nineteenth Century. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2004.

Savage, Dan. “Savage Love: Fresh Starts.” Stranger, September 18, 2018. https://www.thestranger.com/savage-love/2018/09/18/32526908/fresh-starts.

Stekel, Wilhelm. Frigidity in Woman: In Relation to Her Love Life. Translated by James S. Van Teslaar. Disorders of the Instincts and the Emotions: The Parapathiac Disorders. New York: Horace Liveright, 1926.

The Lesbian Bar Project. “The 21 Bars —The Lesbian Bar Project.” Accessed August 12, 2022. https://www.lesbianbarproject.com/.

Tréguer, Pascal. “History of the Phrase ‘Close Your Eyes and Think of England.’” Word histories, November 27, 2019. https://wordhistories.net/2019/11/27/close-eyes-think-england/.

Chapter 10: Pronoun wars

Baron, Dennis. “A Brief History of Singular ‘They.’” Oxford English Dictionary, September 4, 2018. https://web.archive.org/web/20230127031004/https://public.oed.com/blog/a-brief-history-of-singular-they/.

Gelernter, David. “Feminism and the English Language: Can the Damage to Our Mother Tongue Be Undone?” Weekly Standard, March 3, 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20080510073058/http://weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/014/783lvmtg.asp?pg=1.

Gelernter, Josh. “The War on Grammar.” National Review (blog), October 8, 2016. https://www.nationalreview.com/2016/10/gender-pronouns-job-titles/.

Pinker, Steven. The Sense of Style: The Thinking Person’s Guide to Writing in the 21st Century. New York: Penguin, 2014.

“They, Pron., Adj., Adv., and N.” In OED Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press, March 2022. https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/200700#eid18519864.

Chapter 11: Both/neither

Brown, David Jay, and Rebecca McClen Novick. Voices from the Edge: Conversations with Jerry Garcia, Ram Dass, Annie Sprinkle, Matthew Fox, Jaron Lanier, & Others. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press, 1995.

Hammond, William Alexander. Sexual Impotence in the Male. New York: Bermingham & Company, 1883.

Hauser, G. A. “Testicular Feminization.” In Intersexuality, edited by Claus Overzier, 255–76. London and New York: Academic Press, 1963.

Keays, Melise A., and Sumit Dave. “Current Hypospadias Management: Diagnosis, Surgical Management, and Long-Term Patient-Centred Outcomes.” Canadian Urological Association Journal 11, no. 1-2 Suppl. 1 (January 2017): S48–53.

Lambert, Max R., Geoffrey S. J. Giller, Larry B. Barber, Kevin C. Fitzgerald, and David K. Skelly. “Suburbanization, Estrogen Contamination, and Sex Ratio in Wild Amphibian Populations.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112, no. 38 (September 22, 2015): 11881–86.

Liao, Lih-Mei, Laura Audi, Ellie Magritte, Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg, and Charmian A. Quigley. “Determinant Factors of Gender Identity: A Commentary.” Journal of Pediatric Urology 8, no. 6 (December 2012): 597–601.

Money, John. Venuses Penuses: Sexology, Sexosophy, and Exigency Theory. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1986.

Money, John, and Anke A. Ehrhardt. Man & Woman, Boy & Girl: The Differentiation and Dimorphism of Gender Identity from Conception to Maturity. Baltimore, London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972.

“Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome.” In GARD: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. Gaithersburg, MD: NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, November 8, 2021. https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/8435/persistent-mullerian-duct-syndrome.

Quigley, Charmian A., Alessandra De Bellis, Keith B. Marschke, Mostafa K. el-Awady, Elizabeth M. Wilson, and Frank S. French. “Androgen Receptor Defects: Historical, Clinical, and Molecular Perspectives.” Endocrine Reviews 16, no. 3 (June 1995): 271–321.

Scutti, Susan. “‘The Protocol of the Day Was to Lie’: NYC Issues First US ‘Intersex’ Birth Certificate.” CNN, December 30, 2016. https://www.cnn.com/2016/12/30/health/intersex-birth-certificate/index.html.

Springer, A., M. van den Heijkant, and S. Baumann. “Worldwide Prevalence of Hypospadias.” Journal of Pediatric Urology 12, no. 3 (June 2016): 152.e1–7.

Wolinsky, Howard. “A Mythical Beast. Increased Attention Highlights the Hidden Wonders of Chimeras.” EMBO Reports 8, no. 3 (March 2007): 212–14.

Young, Hugh Hampton. Genital Abnormalities, Hermaphroditism and Related Adrenal Diseases. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1937.

Interlude: Ycleptance

Adkins, Judith. “‘These People Are Frightened to Death’: Congressional Investigations and the Lavender Scare.” Prologue Magazine, August 15, 2016. https://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2016/summer/lavender.html.

Baker, Monya. “1,500 Scientists Lift the Lid on Reproducibility.” Nature Publishing Group UK, May 25, 2016. https://doi.org/[10.1038/533452a](http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/533452a).

Button, Katherine S., John P. A. Ioannidis, Claire Mokrysz, Brian A. Nosek, Jonathan Flint, Emma S. J. Robinson, and Marcus R. Munafò. “Power Failure: Why Small Sample Size Undermines the Reliability of Neuroscience.” Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 14, no. 5 (May 2013): 365–76.

Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca. Genes, Peoples, and Languages. New York: North Point Press, 2000.

Colapinto, John. As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. London: Quartet, 2000.

Coleman, Eli, ed. John Money: A Tribute, On the Occasion of His 70th Birthday. New York: The Haworth Press, 1991.

Downing, Lisa, Iain Morland, and Nikki Sullivan. Fuckology: Critical Essays on John Money’s Diagnostic Concepts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014.

—. “Pervert or Sexual Libertarian?: Meet John Money, ‘the Father of F***ology.’” Salon, January 4, 2015. https://www.salon.com/2015/01/04/pervert_or_sexual_libertarian_meet_john_money_the_father_of_fology/.

El-Hai, Jack. The Lobotomist: A Maverick Medical Genius and His Tragic Quest to Rid the World of Mental Illness. Hoboken: Wiley, 2005.

Frame, Janet. An Angel at My Table: An Autobiography. New York: G. Braziller, 1984.

—. “A Night at the Opera.” New Yorker. May 26, 2008. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2008/06/02/a-night-at-the-opera-fiction-janet-frame.

—. “Gorse Is Not People.” New Yorker. August 25, 2008. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2008/09/01/gorse-is-not-people.

Goldie, Terry. The Man Who Invented Gender: Engaging the Ideas of John Money. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press, 2014.

Junk, Thomas R., and Louis Lyons. “Reproducibility and Replication of Experimental Particle Physics Results.” arXiv [physics.data-An], September 15, 2020. arXiv. http://arxiv.org/abs/2009.06864.

Money, John. Biographies of Gender and Hermaphroditism in Paired Comparisons: Clinical Supplement to the Handbook of Sexology. Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier, 1991.

—. “Concepts of Determinism.” In Gay, Straight, and In-Between: The Sexology of Erotic Orientation, 114–19. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

—. Venuses Penuses: Sexology, Sexosophy, and Exigency Theory. Buffalo, NY, US: Prometheus Books, 1986.

Money, John, and Anke A. Ehrhardt. Man & Woman, Boy & Girl: The Differentiation and Dimorphism of Gender Identity from Conception to Maturity. Baltimore, London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972.

Money, John, and Patricia Tucker. Sexual Signatures: On Being a Man or a Woman. Boston: Little, Brown, 1975.

Overzier, Claus Von. “Methods of Clinical Investigation.” In Intersexuality, edited by Claus Von Overzier. London and New York: Academic Press, 1963.

Reich, David. Who We Are and How We Got Here: Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past. New York: Pantheon Books, 2018.

Reinisch, June M., Leonard A. Rosenblum, Donald B. Rubin, and M. Fini Schulsinger. “Sex Differences in Developmental Milestones During the First Year of Life.” In John Money: A Tribute, On the Occasion of His 70th Birthday, edited by Eli Coleman, 19–36. New York: The Haworth Press, 1991.

tvb. “The Death of a ‘Pioneer.’” Daily Kos, July 9, 2006. https://www.dailykos.com/stories/2006/07/09/225943/-The-death-of-a-pioneer.

Chapter 12: First, do no harm

Altokhais, Tariq Ibrahim. “Electrosurgery Use in Circumcision in Children: Is it Safe?” Urology Annals 9, no. 1 (January 2017): 1–3.

Bayraktar, Zeki. “Potential Autofertility in True Hermaphrodites.” The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine: The Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 31, no. 4 (February 2018): 542–47.

Bushell, Alice. “Los Muxes: Disrupting the Colonial Gender Binary.” Human Rights Pulse, June 11, 2021. https://www.humanrightspulse.com/mastercontentblog/los-muxes-disrupting-the-colonial-gender-binary.

Chira, Susan. “When Japan Had a Third Gender.” New York Times. March 10, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/10/arts/design/when-japan-had-a-third-gender.html.

Colapinto, John. As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. London: Quartet, 2000.

Downing, Lisa, Iain Morland, and Nikki Sullivan. Fuckology: Critical Essays on John Money’s Diagnostic Concepts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014.

Flores, Ana. “Two Spirit and LGBTQ Idenitites: Today and Centuries Ago.” Human Rights Campaign, November 23, 2020. https://www.hrc.org/news/two-spirit-and-lgbtq-idenitites-today-and-centuries-ago.

Gearhart, John P., and John A. Rock. “Total Ablation of the Penis After Circumcision with Electrocautery: A Method of Management and Long-Term Followup.” The Journal of Urology 142, no. 3 (September 1989): 799–801.

Hunter, Sophie. “Hijras and the Legacy of British Colonial Rule in India.” Engenderings, June 17, 2019. https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/gender/2019/06/17/hijras-and-the-legacy-of-british-colonial-rule-in-india/.

InterACT, and Human Rights Watch. “‘I Want to Be Like Nature Made Me’: Medically Unnecessary Surgeries on Intersex Children in the US.” Human Rights Watch, 2017. https://www.hrw.org/report/2017/07/25/i-want-be-nature-made-me/medically-unnecessary-surgeries-intersex-children-us.

Lindahl, Hans. “9 Young People on How They Found Out They Are Intersex.” Teen Vogue, October 25, 2019. https://www.teenvogue.com/gallery/young-people-on-how-they-found-out-they-are-intersex.

Neus, Nora. “She’s 7 and Was Born Intersex. Why Her Parents Elected to Let Her Grow Up Without Surgical Intervention.” CNN, January 10, 2020. https://www.cnn.com/2020/01/10/us/intersex-surgeries-gothere/index.html.

Peraino, Judith A. Listening to the Sirens: Musical Technologies of Queer Identity from Homer to Hedwig. University of California Press, 2006.

Reardon, Sara. “The Spectrum of Sex Development: Eric Vilain and the Intersex Controversy.” Nature 533 (May 10, 2016): 160–63.

Saini, Angela. Inferior: How Science Got Women Wrong and the New Research That’s Rewriting the Story. Boston: Beacon Press, 2017.

Sen, Amartya. “More Than 100 Million Women Are Missing.” In Gender and Justice, edited by Ngaire Naffine, 219–22. 1990. Reprint, London: Routledge, 2017.

Swan, Shanna H., and Stacey Colino. Count Down: How Our Modern World Is Threatening Sperm Counts, Altering Male and Female Reproductive Development, and Imperiling the Future of the Human Race. New York: Scribner, 2022.

Trankuility. “Protection of Intersex Children from Harmful Practices.” Wikimedia Commons, October 2016. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Protection_of_intersex_children_from_harmful_practices.svg.

Young, Hugh Hampton. Genital Abnormalities, Hermaphroditism and Related Adrenal Diseases. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1937.

Chapter 13: The return of Count Sandor

Colapinto, John. As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. London: Quartet, 2000.

Coleman, E., A. E. Radix, W. P. Bouman, G. R. Brown, A. L. C. de Vries, M. B. Deutsch, R. Ettner, et al. “Standards of Care for the Health of Transgender and Gender Diverse People, Version 8.” International Journal of Transgender Health 23, no. S1 (August 19, 2022): S1–259.

Delahunt, John W., Hayley J. Denison, Dalice A. Sim, Jemima J. Bullock, and Jeremy D. Krebs. “Increasing Rates of People Identifying as Transgender Presenting to Endocrine Services in the Wellington Region.” The New Zealand Medical Journal 131, no. 1468 (January 19, 2018): 33–42.

Drummond, Kelley D., Susan J. Bradley, Michele Peterson-Badali, and Kenneth J. Zucker. “A Follow-up Study of Girls with Gender Identity Disorder.” Developmental Psychology 44, no. 1 (January 2008): 34–45.

Expósito-Campos, Pablo. “A Typology of Gender Detransition and Its Implications for Healthcare Providers.” Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 47, no. 3 (January 10, 2021): 270–80.

Gates, Gary J. “How Many People Are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender?” The Williams Institute, April 1, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20150425174542/http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Gates-How-Many-People-LGBT-Apr-2011.pdf.

The Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust. “Gender Identity Development Service Referrals in 2019-20 Same as 2018-19.” Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, May 29, 2020. https://tavistockandportman.nhs.uk/about-us/news/stories/gender-identity-development-service-referrals-2019-20-same-2018-19/.

Gentleman, Amelia. “‘An Explosion’: What Is Behind the Rise in Girls Questioning Their Gender Identity?” Guardian. November 24, 2022. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2022/nov/24/an-explosion-what-is-behind-the-rise-in-girls-questioning-their-gender-identity.

Gill-Peterson, Jules. Histories of the Transgender Child. University of Minnesota Press, 2018.

Hembree, Wylie C., Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis, Louis Gooren, Sabine E. Hannema, Walter J. Meyer, M. Hassan Murad, Stephen M. Rosenthal, Joshua D. Safer, Vin Tangpricha, and Guy G. T’Sjoen. “Endocrine Treatment of Gender-Dysphoric/Gender-Incongruent Persons: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 102, no. 11 (November 1, 2017): 3869–3903.

Hinsliff, Gaby. “‘Age Has Nothing to Do With It’: How It Feels to Transition Later in Life.” Guardian. November 17, 2018. https://amp.theguardian.com/society/2018/nov/17/age-nothing-do-with-it-transition-later-life-transgender.

Irshad, Usama, Ali Madeeh Hashmi, and Irum Aamer. “Between a Rock and a Hard Place – Gender Dysphoria and Comorbid Depression in a Young, Low-Income, Pakistani Transgender Man.” Cureus 12, no. 9 (September 2, 2020): e10205.

Jacques, Juliet. Trans: A Memoir. Brooklyn: Verso Books, 2015.

Jones, Tiffany, Bonnie Hart, Morgan Carpenter, Gavi Ansara, William Leonard, and Jayne Lucke. Intersex: Stories and Statistics from Australia. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2016.

Katyal, Sonia K., and Ilona M. Turner. “Transparenthood.” Michigan Law Review, no. 117.8 (2019): 1593.

Meerwijk, Esther L., and Jae M. Sevelius. “Transgender Population Size in the United States: A Meta-Regression of Population-Based Probability Samples.” American Journal of Public Health 107, no. 2 (February 2017): e1–8.

Nahata, Leena, Diane Chen, Molly B. Moravek, Gwendolyn P. Quinn, Megan E. Sutter, Julia Taylor, Amy C. Tishelman, and Veronica Gomez-Lobo. “Understudied and Under-Reported: Fertility Issues in Transgender Youth—A Narrative Review.” The Journal of Pediatrics 205 (February 2019): 265–71.

Orange, Richard. “Teenage Transgender Row Splits Sweden as Dysphoria Diagnoses Soar by 1,500%.” Guardian. February 22, 2020. https://amp.theguardian.com/society/2020/feb/22/ssweden-teenage-transgender-row-dysphoria-diagnoses-soar.

O’Toole, Garson. “Science Makes Progress Funeral by Funeral.” Quote Investigator, September 25, 2017. https://quoteinvestigator.com/2017/09/25/progress/.

Pauly, Ira B. “The Current Status of the Change of Sex Operation.” The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 147, no. 5 (November 1968): 460–71.

Singh, Devita, Susan J. Bradley, and Kenneth J. Zucker. “A Follow-Up Study of Boys With Gender Identity Disorder.” Frontiers in Psychiatry / Frontiers Research Foundation 12 (March 29, 2021): 632784.

Smith, Michael. “Referrals to the Gender Identity Development Service (GIDS) Level Off in 2018-19.” The Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, June 28, 2019. https://tavistockandportman.nhs.uk/about-us/news/stories/referrals-gender-identity-development-service-gids-level-2018-19/.

Wikipedia. “Sodomy laws in the United States,” September 10, 2022. https://w.wiki/5ijZ.

Steensma, Thomas D., Roeline Biemond, Fijgje de Boer, and Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis. “Desisting and Persisting Gender Dysphoria After Childhood: A Qualitative Follow-up Study.” Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 16, no. 4 (October 2011): 499–516.

Steensma, Thomas D., Baudewijntje P. C. Kreukels, Annelou L. C. de Vries, and Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis. “Gender Identity Development in Adolescence.” Hormones and Behavior 64, no. 2 (July 2013): 288–97.

Stone, Sandy. “The Empire Strikes Back: A Posttranssexual Manifesto.” The Transgender Studies Reader, 2006.

Tang, Annie, J. Carlo Hojilla, Jordan E. Jackson, Kara A. Rothenberg, Rebecca C. Gologorsky, Douglas A. Stram, Colin M. Mooney, Stephanie L. Hernandez, and Karen M. Yokoo. “Gender-Affirming Mastectomy Trends and Surgical Outcomes in Adolescents.” Annals of Plastic Surgery 88, no. 4 (May 2022): S325.

Temple Newhook, Julia, Jake Pyne, Kelley Winters, Stephen Feder, Cindy Holmes, Jemma Tosh, Mari-Lynne Sinnott, Ally Jamieson, and Sarah Pickett. “A Critical Commentary on Follow-up Studies and ‘Desistance’ Theories About Transgender and Gender-Nonconforming Children.” International Journal of Transgenderism 19, no. 2 (April 3, 2018): 212–24.

Wallien, Madeleine S. C., and Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis. “Psychosexual Outcome of Gender-Dysphoric Children.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 47, no. 12 (December 2008): 1413–23.

Chapter 14: A view from above

“Advances in AI Are Used to Spot Signs of Sexuality.” Economist. September 9, 2017. https://www.economist.com/science-and-technology/2017/09/09/advances-in-ai-are-used-to-spot-signs-of-sexuality.

Agüera y Arcas, Blaise, Margaret Mitchell, and Alexander Todorov. “Physiognomy’s New Clothes.” Medium, May 6, 2017. https://medium.com/@blaisea/physiognomys-new-clothes-f2d4b59fdd6a.

Anderson, Drew. “GLAAD and HRC Call on Stanford University & Responsible Media to Debunk Dangerous & Flawed Report Claiming to Identify LGBTQ People Through Facial Recognition Technology.” GLAAD, September 8, 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170910172214/https://www.glaad.org/blog/glaad-and-hrc-call-stanford-university-responsible-media-debunk-dangerous-flawed-report.

Cogsdill, Emily J., Alexander T. Todorov, Elizabeth S. Spelke, and Mahzarin R. Banaji. “Inferring Character from Faces: A Developmental Study.” Psychological Science 25, no. 5 (May 1, 2014): 1132–39.

Copeland, Jack. “Alan Turing: The Codebreaker Who Saved ‘Millions of Lives.’” BBC, June 19, 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-18419691.

Cox, William T. L., Patricia G. Devine, Alyssa A. Bischmann, and Janet S. Hyde. “Inferences About Sexual Orientation: The Roles of Stereotypes, Faces, and the Gaydar Myth.” Journal of Sex Research 53, no. 2 (2016): 157–71.

Drury, Colin. “Alan Turing: The Father of Modern Computing Credited with Saving Millions of Lives.” Independent. July 15, 2019. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/alan-turing-ps50-note-computers-maths-enigma-codebreaker-ai-test-a9005266.html.

Dunbar, Robin. Friends: Understanding the Power of Our Most Important Relationships. London: Little, Brown Book Group, 2021.

Efferson, Charles, and Sonja Vogt. “Viewing Men’s Faces Does Not Lead to Accurate Predictions of Trustworthiness.” Scientific Reports 3 (January 10, 2013): 1047.

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Fink, Bernhard, Nick Neave, Gayle Brewer, and Boguslaw Pawlowski. “Variable Preferences for Sexual Dimorphism in Stature (SDS): Further Evidence for an Adjustment in Relation to Own Height.” Personality and Individual Differences 43, no. 8 (December 1, 2007): 2249–57.

Galton, Francis J. “Composite Portraits.” Nature 18 (1878): 97–100.

Grother, Patrick, Mei Ngan, and Kayee Hanaoka. “Face Recognition Vendor Test Part 3: Demographic Effects.” Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology, December 2019. https://doi.org/10.6028/nist.ir.8280.

Harwell, Drew. “Facial Recognition Firm Clearview AI Tells Investors It’s Seeking Massive Expansion Beyond Law Enforcement.” Washington Post. February 16, 2022. https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2022/02/16/clearview-expansion-facial-recognition/.

Hayles, Nancy Katherine. How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

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Ikeda, Scott. “Bad Bot Traffic Report: Almost Half of All 2021 Internet Traffic Was Not Human.” CPO Magazine, May 25, 2022. https://www.cpomagazine.com/cyber-security/bad-bot-traffic-report-almost-half-of-all-2021-internet-traffic-was-not-human/.

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Katyal, Sonia K., and Jessica Y. Jung. “The Gender Panopticon: AI, Gender, and Design Justice.” UCLA Law Review 68 (2021): 692.

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Levin, Sam. “Face-Reading AI Will Be Able to Detect Your Politics and IQ, Professor Says.” Guardian. September 12, 2017. https://amp.theguardian.com/technology/2017/sep/12/artificial-intelligence-face-recognition-michal-kosinski.

McCann, Kate. “Turing’s Law: Oscar Wilde Among 50,000 Convicted Gay Men Granted Posthumous Pardons.” Daily Telegraph. January 31, 2017. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/01/31/turings-law-thousands-convicted-gay-bisexual-men-receive-posthumous/.

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Olivola, Christopher Y., Friederike Funk, and Alexander Todorov. “Social Attributions from Faces Bias Human Choices.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18, no. 11 (November 2014): 566–70.

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Peterson, Joshua C., Stefan Uddenberg, Thomas L. Griffiths, Alexander Todorov, and Jordan W. Suchow. “Deep Models of Superficial Face Judgments.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 119, no. 17 (April 26, 2022): e2115228119.

Reichert, Corinne. “Clearview AI Facial Recognition Customers Reportedly Include DOJ, FBI, ICE, Macy’s.” CNET, March 2, 2020. https://www.cnet.com/news/privacy/clearview-ai-facial-recognition-customers-reportedly-include-ice-justice-department-fbi-macys/.

Rezlescu, Constantin, Brad Duchaine, Christopher Y. Olivola, and Nick Chater. “Unfakeable Facial Configurations Affect Strategic Choices in Trust Games With or Without Information About Past Behavior.” PloS One 7, no. 3 (March 28, 2012): e34293.

Rocine, Victor Gabriel. Heads, Faces, Types, Races. Chicago: Vaught-Rocine Pub. Co, 1910.

Rule, Nicholas O., and Nalini Ambady. “Brief Exposures: Male Sexual Orientation Is Accurately Perceived at 50ms.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44, no. 4 (July 1, 2008): 1100–1105.

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Sedgewick, Jennifer R., Meghan E. Flath, and Lorin J. Elias. “Presenting Your Best Self(ie): The Influence of Gender on Vertical Orientation of Selfies on Tinder.” Frontiers in Psychology 8 (April 21, 2017): 604.

Snowden, Edward. Permanent Record. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2019.

Todorov, Alexander. Face Value: The Irresistible Influence of First Impressions. Princeton University Press, 2017.

Todorov, Alexander, Christopher Y. Olivola, Ron Dotsch, and Peter Mende-Siedlecki. “Social Attributions from Faces: Determinants, Consequences, Accuracy, and Functional Significance.” Annual Review of Psychology 66 (January 3, 2015): 519–45.

Turing, Alan Mathison. “Computing Machinery and Intelligence.” Mind; a Quarterly Review of Psychology and Philosophy LIX, no. 236 (October 1, 1950): 433–60.

Turk, Matthew, and Alex Pentland. “Eigenfaces for Recognition.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 3, no. 1 (Winter 1991): 71–86.

de Waal, Frans. Different: Gender Through the Eyes of a Primatologist. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2022.

Wang, Yilun, and Michal Kosinski. “Deep Neural Networks Are More Accurate than Humans at Detecting Sexual Orientation from Facial Images.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 114, no. 2 (February 2018): 246–57.

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William H. Press, Saul A. Teukolsky, William T. Vetterling, and Brian P. Flannery. Numerical Recipes 3rd Edition: The Art of Scientific Computing. Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Wilson, John Paul, and Nicholas O. Rule. “Facial Trustworthiness Predicts Extreme Criminal-Sentencing Outcomes.” Psychological Science 26, no. 8 (August 2015): 1325–31.

Wu, Xiaolin, and Xi Zhang. “Automated Inference on Criminality Using Face Images.” arXiv [cs.CV], 2016. arXiv. https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.04135v1.

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Chapter 15: Postgender

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Bechtel, Abi. “Don’t do this, @Target.” Twitter, June 1, 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20220518120023/https://twitter.com/abianne/status/605503223575781376#.

Boeree, Liv (@liv_boeree). “In my experience, all the furore over Instagram & Facebook causing teenage depression is overlooking the bigger issue: beauty filters. I mean just look at this absurdity.” Twitter, October 6, 2021. https://twitter.com/liv_boeree/status/1445868089539588100.

Cederstrom, Carl. “Are We Ready for the Breastfeeding Father?” New York Times. October 18, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/18/opinion/sunday/men-breastfeeding.html.

Cukor, George. My Fair Lady. Warner Bros., 1964.

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Damore, James. “Google’s Ideological Echo Chamber: How Bias Clouds Our Thinking About Diversity and Inclusion.” Google Diversity Memo, July 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170809021151/https://diversitymemo.com/.

Fava, Giovanni A. “Morselli’s Legacy: Dysmorphophobia.” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 58, no. 3-4 (1992): 117–18.

Federici, Silvia. Wages Against Housework. Bristol: Published jointly by the Power of Women Collective and the Falling Wall Press, 1975.

Firestone, Shulamith. The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution. New York: Morrow, 1970.

Goldenberg, Suzanne. “Why Women Are Poor at Science, by Harvard President.” Guardian. January 18, 2005. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2005/jan/18/educationsgendergap.genderissues.

Goldin, Claudia, and Cecilia Rouse. “Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of ‘Blind’ Auditions on Female Musicians.” The American Economic Review 90, no. 4 (September 2000): 715–41.

Gurven, Michael, and Kim Hill. “Why Do Men Hunt? A Reevaluation of ‘Man the Hunter’ and the Sexual Division of Labor.” Current Anthropology 50, no. 1 (February 2009): 51–62; discussion 62–74.

Haas, Randall, James Watson, Tammy Buonasera, John Southon, Jennifer C. Chen, Sarah Noe, Kevin Smith, Carlos Viviano Llave, Jelmer Eerkens, and Glendon Parker. “Female Hunters of the Early Americas.” Science Advances 6, no. 45 (November 2020). https://doi.org/[10.1126/sciadv.abd0310](http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd0310).

Hollings, Christopher, Ursula Martin, and Adrian Rice. “The Lovelace–De Morgan Mathematical Correspondence: A Critical Re-Appraisal.” Historia Mathematica 44, no. 3 (August 1, 2017): 202–31.

Joel, Daphna, and Luba Vikhanski. Gender Mosaic: Beyond the Myth of the Male and Female Brain. New York: Little, Brown, 2019.

Judge, Timothy A., and Daniel M. Cable. “The Effect of Physical Height on Workplace Success and Income: Preliminary Test of a Theoretical Model.” The Journal of Applied Psychology 89, no. 3 (June 2004): 428–41.

Lang, Nico. “Target to Install Gender-Neutral Bathrooms in All of Its Stores.” Advocate, August 18, 2016. https://www.advocate.com/transgender/2016/8/18/target-install-gender-neutral-bathrooms-all-its-stores.

Lee, Richard Borshay, and Irven DeVore, eds. Man the Hunter: The First Intensive Survey of a Single, Crucial Stage of Human Development—Man’s Once Universal Hunting Way of Life. Chicago: Aldine De Gruyter, 1968.

Lieberman, Daniel E., Mickey Mahaffey, Silvino Cubesare Quimare, Nicholas B. Holowka, Ian J. Wallace, and Aaron L. Baggish. “Running in Tarahumara (Rarámuri) Culture: Persistence Hunting, Footracing, Dancing, Work, and the Fallacy of the Athletic Savage.” Current Anthropology 61, no. 3 (June 1, 2020): 356–79.

Lombroso, Cesare, and Guglielmo Ferrero. Criminal Woman, the Prostitute, and the Normal Woman. Translated by Mary Gibson and Nicole Hahn Rafter. Duke University Press, 2004.

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Mazur, A., and A. Booth. “Testosterone and Dominance in Men.” The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21, no. 3 (June 1998): 353–63; discussion 363–97.

Miller, Meg. “Target Debuts An All-Gender Product Line For Kids.” Fast Company, July 10, 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20220923194349/https://www.fastcompany.com/90132191/target-debuts-an-all-gender-kids-product-line.

Morselli, Enrico. “Sulla Dismorfofobia E Sulla Tafefobia.” Boll. Reale Accad. Med. Genova 6 (1891): 3–14.

Muñoz-Reyes, J. A., P. Polo, N. Valenzuela, P. Pavez, O. Ramírez-Herrera, O. Figueroa, C. Rodriguez-Sickert, D. Díaz, and M. Pita. “The Male Warrior Hypothesis: Testosterone-Related Cooperation and Aggression in the Context of Intergroup Conflict.” Scientific Reports 10, no. 1 (January 15, 2020): 375.

Murphy-Hill, Emerson, Ciera Jaspan, Carolyn Egelman, and Lan Cheng. “The Pushback Effects of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Age in Code Review.” Communications of the ACM 65, no. 3 (February 23, 2022): 52–57.

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Ritchie, Stuart J., Simon R. Cox, Xueyi Shen, Michael V. Lombardo, Lianne M. Reus, Clara Alloza, Mathew A. Harris, et al. “Sex Differences in the Adult Human Brain: Evidence from 5216 UK Biobank Participants.” Cerebral Cortex 28, no. 8 (August 1, 2018): 2959–75.

Ruigrok, Amber N. V., Gholamreza Salimi-Khorshidi, Meng-Chuan Lai, Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael V. Lombardo, Roger J. Tait, and John Suckling. “A Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Human Brain Structure.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 39 (February 2014): 34–50.

Serano, Julia. Excluded: Making Feminist and Queer Movements More Inclusive. Berkeley, California: Seal Press, 2013.

Speakman, Robert J., Carla S. Hadden, Matthew H. Colvin, Justin Cramb, K. C. Jones, Travis W. Jones, Isabelle Lulewicz, et al. “Market Share and Recent Hiring Trends in Anthropology Faculty Positions.” PloS One 13, no. 9 (September 12, 2018): e0202528.

Sterling, Kathleen. “Man the Hunter, Woman the Gatherer? The Impact of Gender Studies on Hunter-Gatherer Research (A Retrospective).” In The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers, edited by Vicki Cummings, Peter Jordan, and Marek Zvelebil, 151–74. Oxford University Press, 2014.

Suhay, Lisa. “Target Experiments with Gender Neutrality in Its Stores.” Christian Science Monitor, February 9, 2016. https://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Society/2016/0209/Target-experiments-with-gender-neutrality-in-its-stores.

Tiller, Nicholas B., Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Beat Knechtle, Patrick B. Wilson, Justin D. Roberts, and Guillaume Y. Millet. “Do Sex Differences in Physiology Confer a Female Advantage in Ultra-Endurance Sport?” Sports Medicine 51, no. 5 (May 2021): 895–915.

Tommasini, Anthony. “To Make Orchestras More Diverse, End Blind Auditions.” New York Times. July 16, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/16/arts/music/blind-auditions-orchestras-race.html.

Usuda, Haruo, Shimpei Watanabe, Masatoshi Saito, Shinichi Sato, Gabrielle C. Musk, Erin Fee, Sean Carter, et al. “Successful Use of an Artificial Placenta to Support Extremely Preterm Ovine Fetuses at the Border of Viability.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 221, no. 1 (July 2019): 69.e1–69.e17.

Walker, Candice E., Eva G. Krumhuber, Steven Dayan, and Adrian Furnham. “Effects of Social Media Use on Desire for Cosmetic Surgery Among Young Women.” Current Psychology 40, no. 7 (July 1, 2021): 3355–64.

Walsh, Matt. “Yes, Target, I Do Want My Daughter to Conform to Her Gender.” theblaze.com, August 13, 2015. https://www.theblaze.com/contributions/yes-i-do-want-my-daughter-to-conform-to-her-gender.

Wamboldt, Rachel, Shirley Shuster, and Bikrampal S. Sidhu. “Lactation Induction in a Transgender Woman Wanting to Breastfeed: Case Report.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 106, no. 5 (April 23, 2021): e2047–52.

Westerman, Ashley. “Ukrainian Women Have Started Learning a Crucial War Skill: How to Fly a Drone.” NPR. November 26, 2022. https://www.npr.org/2022/11/26/1135633681/ukraine-women-drones-russia-war.

Chapter 16: Ignition

Brakefield, Tiffany A., Sara C. Mednick, Helen W. Wilson, Jan-Emmanuel De Neve, Nicholas A. Christakis, and James H. Fowler. “Same-Sex Sexual Attraction Does Not Spread in Adolescent Social Networks.” Archives of Sexual Behavior 43, no. 2 (February 2014): 335–44.

Cauldwell, David O. Bisexuality in Patterns of Human Behavior: A Study of Individuals Who Indulge in Both Hetero-Sexual and Homosexual Practices, with Comparative Data on Hermaphrodites, the Human Intersex. Edited by E. Haldeman-Julius. Girard, Kansas: Haldeman-Julius Publications, 1948.

Enloe, Cynthia H. The Morning After: Sexual Politics at the End of the Cold War. University of California Press, 1993.

Farish, Matthew. “Disaster and Decentralization: American Cities and the Cold War.” Cultural Geographies 10, no. 2 (2003): 125–48.

Habakkuk, Hrothgar John. American and British Technology in the Nineteenth Century: The Search for Labour-Saving Inventions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962.

Kargon, Robert, and Arthur Molella. “The City as Communications Net: Norbert Wiener, the Atomic Bomb, and Urban Dispersal.” Technology and Culture 45, no. 4 (2004): 764–77.

Kennan, George. “The Long Telegram.” In Containment: Documents on American Policy and Strategy, 1945-1950, edited by Thomas H. Etzold and John Lewis Gaddis. 1978. Reprint, Columbia University Press, 1946.

Keyes, Os. “Counting the Countless.” ironholds.org, March 24, 2019. https://ironholds.org/counting-writeup/.

Kinsey, Alfred C., Wardell B. Pomeroy, and Clyde E. Martin. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1948.

Lapp, Ralph E. Must We Hide? Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley Press, 1949.

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Lucas, George. Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker. New York: Ballantine Books, 1976.

O’Toole, Garson. “The Future Has Arrived —It’s Just Not Evenly Distributed Yet.” Quote Investigator, January 24, 2012. https://quoteinvestigator.com/2012/01/24/future-has-arrived/.

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U.S. Census Bureau. “U.S. Cities Are Home to 62.7 Percent of the U.S. Population, but Comprise Just 3.5 Percent of Land Area.” PR Newswire, March 4, 2015. https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/us-cities-are-home-to-627-percent-of-the-us-population-but-comprise-just-35-percent-of-land-area-300045436.html.

Chapter 17: Country and blues

Azrael, Deborah, Lisa Hepburn, David Hemenway, and Matthew Miller. “The Stock and Flow of U.S. Firearms: Results from the 2015 National Firearms Survey.” RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 3, no. 5 (2017): 38–57.

Banner, Stuart. How the Indians Lost Their Land: Law and Power on the Frontier. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2007.

Cross, Sarah H., Robert M. Califf, and Haider J. Warraich. “Rural-Urban Disparity in Mortality in the US From 1999 to 2019.” The Journal of the American Medical Association 325, no. 22 (June 8, 2021): 2312–14.

Dedman, Bill. “The Color of Money.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 1988. http://powerreporting.com/color/.

Deloria, Vine. Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto. New York: Macmillan, 1969.

Dunbar, Robin. Friends: Understanding the Power of Our Most Important Relationships. London: Little, Brown Book Group, 2021.

Farrell, Justin, Paul Berne Burow, Kathryn McConnell, Jude Bayham, Kyle Whyte, and Gal Koss. “Effects of Land Dispossession and Forced Migration on Indigenous Peoples in North America.” Science 374, no. 6567 (October 29, 2021): eabe4943.

Graham, Jesse, Jonathan Haidt, and Brian A. Nosek. “Liberals and Conservatives Rely on Different Sets of Moral Foundations.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96, no. 5 (May 2009): 1029–46.

Horst, Megan, and Amy Marion. “Racial, Ethnic and Gender Inequities in Farmland Ownership and Farming in the U.S.” Agriculture and Human Values 36, no. 1 (March 1, 2019): 1–16.

Jo, Hang-Hyun, Jari Saramäki, Robin I. M. Dunbar, and Kimmo Kaski. “Spatial Patterns of Close Relationships Across the Lifespan.” Scientific Reports 4 (November 11, 2014): 6988.

Nelson, Robert K., Ladale Winling, Richard Marciano, and Nathan Connolly. “Mapping Inequality.” Edited by Robert K. Nelson, Edward L. Ayers, et al. American Panorama, 2021. https://dsl.richmond.edu/panorama/redlining/#loc=12/29.889/-90.089&city=new-orleans-la.

Pew Research Center. “Jewish Americans in 2020,” May 11, 2021. https://www.pewresearch.org/religion/2021/05/11/jewish-americans-in-2020/.

Rosenberg, Nathan, and Bryce Wilson Stucki. “How USDA Distorted Data to Conceal Decades of Discrimination Against Black Farmers.” Counter, June 26, 2019. https://thecounter.org/usda-black-farmers-discrimination-tom-vilsack-reparations-civil-rights/.

Smith, Amy Symens, and Edward Trevelyan. “The Older Population in Rural America: 2012–2016: American Community Survey Reports.” U.S. Census Bureau, September 2019. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2019/acs/acs-41.pdf.

Stewart, Brandon D., and David S. M. Morris. “Moving Morality Beyond the In-Group: Liberals and Conservatives Show Differences on Group-Framed Moral Foundations and These Differences Mediate the Relationships to Perceived Bias and Threat.” Frontiers in Psychology 12 (April 21, 2021): 579908.

Chapter 18: Checking our numbers

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Berbesque, J. Colette, Frank W. Marlowe, Peter Shaw, and Peter Thompson. “Hunter-Gatherers Have Less Famine than Agriculturalists.” Biology Letters 10, no. 1 (January 2014): 20130853.

Bettinger, Robert L. “Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Population Growth Rates Rival Those of Agriculturalists.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113, no. 4 (January 26, 2016): 812–14.

Blaser, Martin J., and Stanley Falkow. “What Are the Consequences of the Disappearing Human Microbiota?” Nature Reviews. Microbiology 7, no. 12 (December 2009): 887–94.

Chang, Kenneth. “Scientists Achieve Nuclear Fusion Breakthrough With Blast of 192 Lasers.” New York Times. December 13, 2022. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/12/13/science/nuclear-fusion-energy-breakthrough.html.

Craig, J. “Replacement Level Fertility and Future Population Growth.” Population Trends, no. 78 (Winter 1994): 20–22.

DeCarolis, Joseph, and Angelina LaRose. “Annual Energy Outlook 2023 with Projections to 2050.” U.S. Energy Information Administration, March 16, 2023. https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo/pdf/AEO2023_Release_Presentation.pdf.

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Hall, Charles A. S., and John W. Day Jr. “Revisiting the Limits to Growth After Peak Oil.” American Scientist 97, no. 3 (2009): 230–37.

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Herrington, Gaya. “Update to Limits to Growth: Comparing the World3 Model with Empirical Data.” Journal of Industrial Ecology 25, no. 3 (June 1, 2021): 614–26.

Hill, Kim, A. M. Hurtado, and R. S. Walker. “High Adult Mortality Among Hiwi Hunter-Gatherers: Implications for Human Evolution.” Journal of Human Evolution 52, no. 4 (April 2007): 443–54.

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Hu, Sijie. “A Micro-Demographic Analysis of Human Fertility from Chinese Genealogies, 1368-1911.” PhD thesis, London School of Economics and Political Science, 2020. https://doi.org/10.21953/lse.00004223.

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Malthus, Thomas Robert. An Essay on the Principle of Population. London: J. Johnson, 1798.

McCormick, Al. “Infant Mortality and Child-Naming: A Genealogical Exploration of American Trends.” The Journal of Public and Professional Sociology 3, no. 1 (2010): 2.

Meadows, Donella H., Dennis L. Meadows, Jørgen Randers, William W. Behrens III, and Club of Rome. The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome’s Project on the Predicament of Mankind. New York: Universe Books, 1972.

Meadows, Donella H., Jørgen Randers, and Dennis L. Meadows. The Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2004.

Mehta, Narendra G. “Did Agriculture Reduce Human Lifespan?” Nature 409 (January 2001): 131–131.

Office of the Chief Actuary, Social Security Administration. “Period Life Table, 2019, as Used in the 2022 Trustees Report,” 2022. https://www.ssa.gov/oact/STATS/table4c6_2019_TR2022.html.

Pasqualino, Roberto, Aled W. Jones, Irene Monasterolo, and Alexander Phillips. “Understanding Global Systems Today—A Calibration of the World3-03 Model Between 1995 and 2012.” Sustainability: Science Practice and Policy 7, no. 8 (July 23, 2015): 9864–89.

Piccioni, Luigi. “Forty Years Later. The Reception of the Limits to Growth in Italy, 1971-1974.” The Donella Meadows Project, July 3, 2012. https://donellameadows.org/archives/forty-years-later-the-reception-of-the-limits-to-growth-in-italy-1971-1974/.

Rook, Graham A. W. “Hygiene and Other Early Childhood Influences on the Subsequent Function of the Immune System.” Digestive Diseases 29, no. 2 (July 5, 2011): 144–53.

Sahlins, Marshall. “The Original Affluent Society.” In Stone Age Economics, 1–39. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton, 1972.

Shapin, Steven. The Scientific Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Shellenberger, Michael D. “Testimony Before the United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources,” March 11, 2021. https://www.energy.senate.gov/services/files/B3F496B5-ADF4-457F-94C8-4257680DCB32.

Tans, Pieter, and Ralph Franklin Keeling. “Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gases, Trends in CO2.” NOAA, Earth System Research Laboratories, Global Monitoring Laboratory, October 5, 2022. https://gml.noaa.gov/ccgg/trends/.

Timmons, Heather. “U.S. Poor Died at Much Higher Rate from COVID than Rich, Report Says.” Reuters. April 4, 2022. https://www.reuters.com/world/us/us-poor-died-much-higher-rate-covid-than-rich-report-2022-04-04/.

Turner, Graham M. “A Comparison of The Limits to Growth with 30 Years of Reality.” Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions 18, no. 3 (2008): 397–411.

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. “World Population Prospects 2022, Online Edition,” 2022. https://population.un.org/wpp/Download/Standard/Fertility/.

Vandegrift, Roo, Ashley C. Bateman, Kyla N. Siemens, May Nguyen, Hannah E. Wilson, Jessica L. Green, Kevin G. Van Den Wymelenberg, and Roxana J. Hickey. “Cleanliness in Context: Reconciling Hygiene with a Modern Microbial Perspective.” Microbiome 5, no. 1 (July 14, 2017): 76.

WHO Technical Advisory Group for COVID-19 Mortality Assessment. “14.9 Million Excess Deaths Associated with the COVID-19 Pandemic in 2020 and 2021.” World Health Organization, May 5, 2022. https://www.who.int/news/item/05-05-2022-14.9-million-excess-deaths-were-associated-with-the-covid-19-pandemic-in-2020-and-2021.

Chapter 19: Choice

Wikipedia. “Agriculture in Niger,” April 13, 2020. https://w.wiki/5tub.

Bureau of International Labor Affairs. “2021 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor: Niger.” U.S. Department of Labor. Accessed October 28, 2022. https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/resources/reports/child-labor/niger.

Casanova, Giacomo. History of My Life. Translated by Willard R. Trask. 12 vols. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966-1971.

Collier, Aine. The Humble Little Condom: A History. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2007.

International Labour Organization. “Global Estimates of Child Labour: Results and Trends, 2012-2016.” ILO Geneva, 2017. https://www.ilo.org/africa/areas-of-work/child-labour/lang--en/index.htm.

Klinenberg, Eric. Going Solo: The Extraordinary Rise and Surprising Appeal of Living Alone. New York: Penguin Books, 2013.

Malthus, Thomas Robert. An Essay on the Principle of Population. London: J. Johnson, 1798.

Our World in Data. “Children per Woman vs. Number of Children Wanted.” Our World in Data, March 31, 2023. https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/fertility-vs-wanted-fertility?time=2019.

Planned Parenthood. “Opposition Claims About Margaret Sanger.” Planned Parenthood Federation of America, April 2021. https://www.plannedparenthood.org/uploads/filer_public/cc/2e/cc2e84f2-126f-41a5-a24b-43e093c47b2c/210414-sanger-opposition-claims-p01.pdf.

Roser, Max, Hannah Ritchie, Esteban Ortiz-Ospina, and Lucas Rodés-Guirao. “World Population Growth.” Our World in Data, 2013. https://ourworldindata.org/world-population-growth.

Rubin, Debra. “Prof: Election Dynamic Bodes Well for the Jews.” New Jersey Jewish News, October 16, 2008. Internet Archive. https://web.archive.org/web/20130916150555/http://njjewishnews.com/njjn.com/101608/njProfElectionDynamic.html.

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Stanton, Henry. Sex: Avoided Subjects Discussed in Plain English. New York: Social Culture Publications, 1922.

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. “World Population Prospects 2022, Online Edition,” 2022. https://population.un.org/wpp/Download/Standard/Fertility/.

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Zelizer, Viviana A. Pricing Priceless Child: The Changing Social Value of Children. New York: Basic Books, 1985.

Chapter 20: Terra incognita

Acemoglu, Daron, and Pascual Restrepo. “Demographics and Automation.” The Review of Economic Studies 89, no. 1 (June 10, 2021): 1–44.

Brinkhoff, Thomas. “Bormida.” City Population, August 8, 2022. https://www.citypopulation.de/en/italy/liguria/savona/009014__bormida/.

Chandran, Rina. “Here’s How Japan Is Breathing New Life into Its ‘Ghost Towns.’” World Economic Forum, July 2, 2019. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/07/doing-the-i-turn-japan-taps-tourism-to-lure-city-dwellers-to-emptying-villages/.

Cooper, Paul. “Europe Was Once Obsessed With Fake Dilapidated Buildings.” Atlantic, April 18, 2018. https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/04/fake-ruins-europe-trend/558293/.

Craggs, Ryan. “The Italian Village of Bormida Won’t Actually Pay You $2,100 to Move There.” Condé Nast Traveler, May 11, 2017. https://www.cntraveler.com/story/the-italian-village-of-bormida-wants-to-pay-you-2100-dollars-to-move-there.

Crawford, Kate, and Vladan Joler. “Anatomy of an AI System: The Amazon Echo as an Anatomical Map of Human Labor, Data and Planetary Resources.” AI Now Institute and Share Lab, September 7, 2018. https://anatomyof.ai/.

Dastin, Jeffery. “Amazon to Shut Its Bookstores and Other Shops as Its Grocery Chain Expands.” Reuters. March 2, 2022. https://www.reuters.com/business/retail-consumer/exclusive-amazon-close-all-its-physical-bookstores-4-star-shops-2022-03-02/.

Dreifus, Claudia, and Edward O. Wilson. “In ‘Half Earth,’ E.O. Wilson Calls for a Grand Retreat.” New York Times. February 29, 2016. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/01/science/e-o-wilson-half-earth-biodiversity.html.

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Elton, Charles S. The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. London: Methuen, 1958.

Epstein, Eli. “An Entire Tuscan Village Is Being Sold on Italian eBay For $3 Million.” Business Insider, June 28, 2012. https://www.businessinsider.com/tuscan-village-pratariccia-on-sale-for-3-million-2012-6.

Hsu, Andrea. “Before the Holiday Season, Workers at America’s Busiest Ports Are Fighting the Robots.” NPR. September 11, 2022. https://www.npr.org/2022/09/11/1121243540/supply-chain-dockworkers-ilwu-union-workers-automation.

HTN Staff. “Dutch Hotel Brand CitizenM Launches a Technology-Enabled ‘Corporate Subscription’ Plan.” Hotel Technology News, September 22, 2020. https://hoteltechnologynews.com/2020/09/dutch-hotel-brand-citizenm-launches-a-technology-enabled-corporate-subscription-plan/.

Institute for Economics and Peace. “Over One Billion People at Threat of Being Displaced by 2050 due to Environmental Change, Conflict and Civil Unrest.” the Institute for Economics and Peace, September 9, 2020. https://www.economicsandpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Ecological-Threat-Register-Press-Release-27.08-FINAL.pdf.

John Deere. “Autonomous 8R Tractor | John Deere Precision Ag.” Youtube, January 4, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QvFoRk4JsPc.

John Deere News. “John Deere Reveals Fully Autonomous Tractor at CES 2022,” January 4, 2022. https://www.deere.com/en/news/all-news/autonomous-tractor-reveal/.

Kimmerer, Robin Wall. Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge and the Teachings of Plants. Minneapolis, MN: Milkweed Editions, 2013.

Koolhaas, Rem. “Countryside.” Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, April 25, 2012. https://www.oma.com/lectures/countryside.

Lustgarten, Abrahm. “Where Will Everyone Go?” ProPublica and the New York Times Magazine, July 23, 2020. https://features.propublica.org/climate-migration/model-how-climate-refugees-move-across-continents/.

Marchetti, Silvia. “Opinion: Why Italy Must Put Its Forgotten ‘Ghost Towns’ up for Sale – or Risk Losing Them Forever.” Local, August 26, 2021. https://www.thelocal.it/20210826/opinion-why-italy-must-put-its-forgotten-ghost-towns-up-for-sale-or-risk-losing-them-forever/.

Marquardt, Felix. The New Nomads: How the Migration Revolution Is Making the World a Better Place. London: Simon & Schuster, 2021.

Martin, Alex K. T. “Japan’s Glut of Abandoned Homes: Hard to Sell but Bargains When Opportunity Knocks.” Japan Times, December 26, 2017. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/12/26/national/japans-glut-abandoned-homes-hard-sell-bargains-opportunity-knocks/.

McAfee, Andrew. More from Less: The Surprising Story of How We Learned to Prosper Using Fewer Resources—and What Happens Next. New York: Scribner, 2019.

Miyazaki, Hayao. Spirited Away. Japan: Studio Ghibli, 2001. https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0245429/.

Muratet, Audrey. “Postface: Une Querelle.” In Ailanthus altissima: une monographie située de l’ailante, edited by Simon Boudvin, translated by Blaise Agüera y Arcas. Paris: Éditions B42, 2021.

Null, Christopher, and Brain Caulfield. “Fade to Black: The 1980s Vision of ‘Lights-out’ Manufacturing, Where Robots Do All the Work, Is a Dream No More.” Business 2.0 Magazine, CNN Money, June 1, 2003. https://web.archive.org/web/20110606100012/http://money.cnn.com/magazines/business2/business2_archive/2003/06/01/343371/index.htm.

Mineral Resources. “Pioneering Autonomous Road Trains Achieve World First,” April 13, 2022. https://www.mineralresources.com.au/news-media/pioneering-autonomous-road-trains-achieve-world-first/.

Rosenberg, Kenneth V., Adriaan M. Dokter, Peter J. Blancher, John R. Sauer, Adam C. Smith, Paul A. Smith, Jessica C. Stanton, et al. “Decline of the North American Avifauna.” Science 366, no. 6461 (October 4, 2019): 120–24.

Rosenwald, Michael S. “Cloud Centers Bring High-Tech Flash but Not Many Jobs to Beaten-down Towns.” Washington Post. November 24, 2011. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/cloud-centers-bring-high-tech-flash-but-not-many-jobs-to-beaten-down-towns/2011/11/08/gIQAccTQtN_story.html.

Schilthuizen, Menno. Darwin Comes to Town: How the Urban Jungle Drives Evolution. New York: Picador, 2018.

Schmidt, Emily. “Why Does the U.S. Lag Other Nations so Badly in the Automation of Its Ports?” APM Research Lab, November 3, 2022. https://www.apmresearchlab.org/10x-port-automation.

Shah, Sonia. The Next Great Migration: The Beauty and Terror of Life on the Move. New York: Bloomsbury, 2020.

Talhelm, T., X. Zhang, S. Oishi, C. Shimin, D. Duan, X. Lan, and S. Kitayama. “Large-Scale Psychological Differences Within China Explained by Rice Versus Wheat Agriculture.” Science 344, no. 6184 (May 9, 2014): 603–8.

Allyn International. “The Evolution of Container Ships and Their Sizes,” June 29, 2022. https://logisticselearning.com/largest-container-ships/.

Global De Heus News. “The Netherlands Are Almost the World’s Largest Exporter of Agricultural Products! How Did That Happen?,” January 23, 2020. https://www.deheus.com/articles/news/the-netherlands-are-almost-the-worlds-largest-exporter-of-agricultural-products-how-did-that-happen.

Thompson, Ken. Where Do Camels Belong?: Why Invasive Species Aren’t All Bad. Vancouver, BC: Greystone Books, 2014.

Wajcman, Judy. Pressed for Time: The Acceleration of Life in Digital Capitalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015.

Wilson, Edward O. Half-Earth: Our Planet’s Fight for Life. New York: Liveright, 2017.

Wyatt, Matt. “Texas Helps Ducks Unlimited Reach 15 Million-Acre Conservation Milestone.” Houston Chronicle, March 26, 2021. https://www.houstonchronicle.com/texas-sports-nation/general/article/Texas-helps-Ducks-Unlimited-reach-15-million-acre-16055998.php.

Chapter 21: Who are we becoming?

Applebaum, Anne. Twilight of Democracy: The Seductive Lure of Authoritarianism. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2020.

Haraway, Donna Jeanne. “A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century.” In Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature, edited by Donna Jeanne Haraway. New York: Routledge, 1991.

Lovelock, James. Novacene: The Coming Age of Hyperintelligence. London: Allen Lane, 2019.

Rushkoff, Douglas. Survival of the Richest: Escape Fantasies of the Tech Billionaires. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2022.

Smith-Ruiu, Justin. “Cull the Robo-Dogs, Cherish the Dirt-Clods: On AI, the Pathetic Fallacy, and the Boundaries of Community.” Justin Smith-Ruiu’s Hinternet, April 15, 2023. https://justinehsmith.substack.com/p/cull-the-robo-dogs-cherish-the-dirt.

Thelwall, John. The Rights of Nature Against the Usurpations of the Establishments: A Series of Letters to the People of Britain on the State of Public Affairs and the Recent Effusions of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke. London: H.D. Symonds and J. March, Norwich, 1796.

Walker, Sara. “AI Is Life.” Noēma, April 27, 2023. https://www.noemamag.com/ai-is-life/.

Zylinska, Joanna, and Gary Hall. “Probings: An Interview with Stelarc.” In The Cyborg Experiments: The Extensions of the Body in the Media Age, edited by Joanna Zylinska. New York: Continuum, 2002.

Chapter 22: Appendix for data nerds

Jensen, Greg. “Kernel Probability Estimation for Binomial and Multinomial Data.” PeerJ PrePrints, June 2, 2015. https://doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.1156v1.

Narayanan, Arvind, and Vitaly Shmatikov. “Robust De-Anonymization of Large Sparse Datasets.” In 2008 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (sp 2008), 111–25, 2008.

Olivier, Jake, and Warren L. May. “Weighted Confidence Interval Construction for Binomial Parameters.” Statistical Methods in Medical Research 15, no. 1 (February 2006): 37–46.

Scargle, Jeffrey D. “Studies in Astronomical Time Series Analysis. V. Bayesian Blocks, a New Method to Analyze Structure in Photon Counting Data.” The Astrophysical Journal 504 (September 1, 1998): 405–18.

Shimazaki, Hideaki, and Shigeru Shinomoto. “Kernel Bandwidth Optimization in Spike Rate Estimation.” Journal of Computational Neuroscience 29, no. 1-2 (August 2010): 171–82.

Wilson, Edwin B. “Probable Inference, the Law of Succession, and Statistical Inference.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 22, no. 158 (1927): 209–12.